...water treatment to remove arsenic & alternative water supplies.
Also test kit & measurement information.
Ontario Centre for Environmental Technology Assessment Envrionmental
Technology Verification-Arsenic Mitigation, Bangladesh. The
OCETA Program is "a capacity building project funded by CIDA [to undertake]
assessment and verification of arsenic mitigation technologies for treating
contaminated rural drinking water. The water treatment technologies currently
being field-tested and the large number being proposed will be subjected to a
rigorous verification process. The assessment and verification of technologies
will be based upon internationally recognized technical protocols and
incorporate social and economic parameters specific to Bangladesh. An
important goal of ETV-AM is to build capacity within Bangladesh to apply
verification techniques... " For more info see:
Rapid Assessment of Household Level
Arsenic Removal Technologies. WaterAid, DFID and
BAMWSP project. Project reports available online
filters chlorinated hydrocarbons and arsenic out of waste water. Technology
Update, Source Water And Sanitation Weekly Issue No. 45-47, 25 Nov 2002.
Researchers of Fraunhofer IGB together with GUTec mbH have succeeded in
filtering carcinogenic substances out of industrial waste water with bio-adsorbers
using bran. With the aid of the newly developed system, arsenic can be bound
almost completely, apart from 0.004 milligrams per liter, and
hexachlorcyclohexane can be bound apart from 0.13 micrograms per liter. This
reduces the concentration far below the statutory limit values of these
pollutants for disposing waste water. The system is highly flexible as far as
the process is concerned: at 2,5 meters long, 1,3 meters wide and 2 meters high,
it can be used at different locations. It can be operated continuously fully
automatically as well as in batch mode.
Contact: Henrike Henschen, Fraunhofer IGB, tel: +49 711 790 4031, email info
@ igb.fhg.de, http://www.igb.fraunhofer.de .
of Arsenic Remediation Technologies at MIT. This
excellent web site by Susan Murcott at Massachusetts Institute of Technology
(MIT) provides an online database of arsenic remediation technologies.
It covers both arsenic removal and provision of alternative safe water supplies.
There is an excellent overview page that categorizes technologies into nine
groups - oxidation, coagulation/precipitation, sedimentation, filtration,
adsorption, ion exchange, membrane/reverse osmosis, biological, and other - and
describes how each category works. As of this writing (10/02) the database
currently documents 44
individual technologies eg SORAS, Jamal Anwar's Oxidation/Reduction, "Safi"
filter, and so on. Documentation for each technology is substantial, including
information on the proponents, testing-verification-field trials, number of
units in use and their locatin, costs, related publications, etc.
AdEdge Technologies - Contact Kiron
Senapati, P.E., Vice President International Business, AdEdge Technologies
Inc., 50 Technology Pkwy. South Norcross, GA 30092, tel (678) 221-2138, fax
Adhiacon, Calcutta. From Mr. Dipankar Adhya:
"With my deep involvement in Rotary International, and visits to many
distant and remote places in the arsenic-affected areas to survey and test of
tubewell water, and undertake awareness campaigns, I have come across many
questions which I thought should be clarified. Finally, with the help of
Dr.Dipankar Chakraborty of SOES Jadavpur University, whose relentless efforts
are an inspiration to me, I prepared a 'FAQ on Arsenic Poisoning of Ground
Water.' This is being published in Bengali and distributed free to villagers in
the affected area."
Adhiacon has developed an arsenic removal system that is
"working at a community level at Baruipur since October 1999 and is
providing an excellent efficiency / result. In fact it is maintenance
free, except regular backwashing to keep filter media clean to for effective
catalytic participation in the process. It does not require any change of filter
media in its lifetime." For more information, email Mr. Adhya at firstname.lastname@example.org
ADI Group (Canada)
Arsenic Removal Technology From ADI: "We
have an agent based in Calcutta who is promoting our arsenic removal technology
in these areas. We anticipate that we will be exporting affordable arsenic
removal systems this year, as well as economical arsenic field test kits. Our
test kits should be available this summer at a cost of $0.90 per test, and
accurate down to 5 ppb, with no interference from iron and sulfide. We are also
working on arsenic removal systems for use at tube wells, as well as for systems
for medical facilities, apartment buildings and commercial establishments. We
bid on a project for a new development in Sri Mayapur - a large municipal
system. Our ferric hydroxide adsorption technology was developed in Canada
and we recently received verification of our performance claim by ETV Canada
Inc. We have a US patent and are nearly pending in Canada, India, Bangladesh and
Technologies' Work In India With Arsenic Crisis. From their press
release dated 26 Feb 2001: "... [the] Public Health and Engineering
Directorate (PHED) of West Bengal [PHED] ... will use this [UNICEF] grant to
fund the installation of multiple groundwater Arsenic Treatment Units (ATUs)
designed and engineered by Atlanta-based Apyron
Technologies, a material
sciences technology company. It is estimated that the
installation of these units will provide safe drinking water to more than 4,500
villagers.... Apyron's ATU, designed to treat arsenic contaminated groundwater,
is the only technology to be designated as 'Best Available Treatment Technology'
by the PHED thus far. In response to this, the PHED has selected this technology
for installation in other arsenic-plagued villages. Apyron began installation of
its ATUs in India during 1997 through a series of field demonstrations."
[Press release continues at http://groups.yahoo.com/group/arsenic-safewater/message/33
Arsenic Crisis In Indian
Subcontinent: An Indigenous Solution. Project to install eight well
head arsenic removal units in the districts of 24 Parganas and Nadia, West
Bengal. Implemented by the Civil Engineering Department, Bengal Engineering
College, Howrah, West Bengal, with primary financing from Water For People
(WEP), an affiliation of American Water Works Association (AWWA), Denver,
Colorado. [Web page dated June 1999.]
public service web site (a place where you can find current information and
links to many sources about arsenic contamination in drinking water).... While
focusing on the United States, we will try to present information from around
the world. We have researched arsenic poisoning since 1998, and will continue to
summarize the most valid data we can find.... As technologies for reduction of
arsenic are proven, we will bring you information on the best filters and
methods of remediation available." [Website owner is not identified. Sells
Technology (AsRT) - Environmental Research Institute (Nikolaos P. Nikolaidis,
Jeffery Lackovic, Gregory Dobbs, and Larry M. Deschaine). In situ and ex
situ remediation and treatment technique for soil/sediment and water. For
a good description see the online article 18 Mar 98: "Filter
cleans arsenic tainted water," Environmental
News Network staff article now at the CNN website.
Emergency Relief Society. "A Canadian society dedicated to providing
newly developed water purifiers to Bangladeshi families, with a view to
providing pure uncontaminated water to thousands and eventually millions
of families through the local fabrication of the water purifiers in Bangladesh....
The water purifiers come in family sized units, require no water pressure,
electricity or chemicals of any nature. They have proven to be effective
in removing most noxious contaminants, including arsenic.... You can pay
for a for a complete water purifier, shipped and delivered to a Bangladeshi
family, and pay with your credit card." Price is USD135 as of 21/9/99.
Clearwater Concepts Pty Ltd,
Australia. They have developed a tablet product -
Clear-Fresh - for treating drinking water to remove arsenic, to sanitise the
water, and to floc impurities out of the water. The product not only
carries out an oxidisation process to remove arsenic and other heavy metals, but
also sanitises drinking water by destroying E-coli and harmful bacteria.
Clear-Fresh has been tested successfully for the removal of cholera and
legionella. The floccing ability ensures that if polluted water is treated
for use as drinking water then items in suspension are flocced to the bottom to
enable the largest percentage of clean water to be drawn off. One 2.5 gram
tablet will treat 25 litres of water. A family using 40 litres of water a day
could treat their water for less than USD25.00 per year. Clear-Fresh is
currently undergoing testing at Deakin University in Australia, and field trials
have been carried out in Bangladesh using a 50% lower active ingredient than
what is currently produced. The field testing in Bangladesh showed reductions in
arsenic levels to the limit of the NIPSOM kit of 0.02 mg/ltrs. The current
University testing will provide with the total extent of the reduction using
Clear-Fresh. On the completion of further testing of our product, they
will apply for BAMWSP ETV of the technology. For more information
tel +61-(0)7-5576 6490.
"Lo-tech patented arsenic removal
system" - Solar Purification Company Inc.
Harbauer Environmental Technology, Berlin - see their report
on Calcutta & Delhi field trials of their arsenic removal technology
HVR Arsenic Project: "Villagers in West Bengal have been severely afflicted by drinking water
from deep wells containing arsenic. There is today no technology for the
removal of arsenic from water that is both efficient and easy to use and
maintain. HVR has developed such technology. It enables the manufacture
of robust equipment for the complete removal of arsenic and all other contaminants
in well or river water. The immediate aim of the HVR arsenic project is
to safeguard the health of millions of villagers in West Bengal."
Technologies, Inc. Georgia USA company, wholesales water treatment
equipment direct to consumers, for residential, commercial, and industrial
HYDRO-Solutions and Purification [no longer available online] "was founded in 1996 to remove arsenic from Alaskan mining wastewater.
Subsequently this arsenic removal system was extended to many water and
wastewater treatment applications." Claimed to be the most inexpensive
(both capital & recurrent costs) process available for commercial,
industrial, and municipal arsenic removal. They also have a selenium removal
"MAGC Technologies Limited was formed in early 2000 and is a privately and
closely held corporation. MAGC's management team has been involved in the severe
crises of arsenic and fluoride contamination in the drinking water supplies of
India and Bangladesh since the virtual recognition of these crises. MAGC
Technologies has been working with local governments, NGOs, the donor community
and private sector entities to make the technology available to the widest
possible area in the shortest possible time. They recognized activated
alumina to be the material of choice, not only due to its superior adsorption
capability, but also because of the non-leachability feature of the spent media.
This led to the formation of a cooperative relationship with Alcan Chemicals
Division of Alcan Inc. in solving the problems in India and Bangladesh."
Sandia National Labs (USA) - newsletter article, "Arsenic-trappers
could allay national sticker shock of new EPA standard" about new
computer-aided designed water treatment materials for removal of arsenic
oxidation and removal of arsenic (SORAS) "SORAS is a simple
method that uses irradiation of water with sunlight in PET- or other UV-A
transparent bottles to reduce arsenic levels from drinking water. The SORAS
method is based on photochemical oxidation of As (III) followed by precipitation
or filtration of As (V) adsorbed on Fe (III) oxides. Following laboratory tests,
SANDEC, the Department of Water and
Sanitation in Developing Countries at the Swiss Federal Institute for
Environmental Science and Technology (EAWAG) conducted a series of field tests
on SORAS in Bangladesh. Contact: Martin
Wegelin and Daniel Gechter or Stefan
a/s (Denmark). "Danish water
purification increases health in the third-world: Arsenic in the drinking water
threatens the population in Bangladesh" [no longer online - domain
name www.sweetwater.dk not found] By Lone Sandstrøm for Sweetwater Technology a/s Denmark. "In
Bangladesh the drinking water is filled with arsenic. For that reason Sweetwater
Technology A/S who produces portable water purifiers has entered into a
collaboration with a local company in the capital of Dhaka to loose the
increasing drinking water problem. . . ."
Synergy Environment Corp.
Solar water pasteurizers to disinfect microbiologically contaminated water Email: email@example.com.
USEPA. Information about arsenic removal:
alternatives for aboveground treatment of arsenic in groundwater. Engineering
Forum Issue Paper. October 2002. "This paper is a
revision of the June 2002 version, and contains additional data identified
for the related report ...."
treatment technologies for solid, waste, and water. September
2002. "The purpose of this report is to provide a
synopsis of the availability, performance, and cost of 13 arsenic treatment
technologies for soil, water, and waste....This report is intended to be
used as a screening tool for arsenic treatment technologies. It provides
descriptions of the theory, design, and operation of the technologies;
information on commercial availability and use; performance and cost data,
where available; and a discussion of factors affecting effectiveness and
cost. As a technology overview document, the information can serve as a
starting point for identifying options for arsenic treatment. The
feasibility of particular technologies will depend heavily on site-specific
factors, and final treatment and remedy decisions will require further
analysis, expertise, and possibly treatability studies."
Research Group (Dhaka) - Permeable Grog for a Low Cost Water Purifier.
"The permeable grog is an earthenware purifier candle saturated with a
very tiny amount of silver that removes 100% of fecal coliforms. This device is described in a
recent paper presented at the annual
convention of the American Ceramic Society. The paper includes several micrographs showing a network of elongated
pores inter-connected such that correct flow rate control is obtained. The purifier is appropriate to the needs of households or institutions
needing to purify collected surface water. The Arsenic Research Group
(ARG), Dhaka, is actively involved in research and development related to the manufacture and use of this device in
Bangladesh." - Reid Harvey, ARG
Dhaka . [See also the related
ARG post to the arsenic-safewater group at yahoogroups.com. See also: info
on production of earthenware filters in Ivory Coast; "New
improved earthenware water purifiers, a sneak preview of candle production,"
webposted 8 Mar 2002]
ESE, Inc. "Dedicated
to activities involved with environmental protection (air and water).
We have developed and innovative and practical systems that generates the
disinfectant Sodium Hypochlorite from common salt, water and electricity
to sanitize drinking water in remote rural communities where other traditional
disinfectants are difficult to use." Product name is Aquachlor, on-site
sodium hypochlorite generator to sanitize drinking water in small communities.
"Requires only common salt, water and electricity (110/220 volts, 50/60
hertz AC or DC from photovoltaic solar cells). Does not require skilled
operators, it is easy to operate and maintain. The only maintenance is
immersing the electrolytic for a few minutes in white vinegar or hydrochloric
acid. Fresh, stable and clean disinfectant generated in the same place
of use. The Sodium Hypochlorite concentration is not dangerous to the operator
or to the environment. Designed to operate and resist abusive handling
and harsh tropical conditions. The most economical way to sanitize and
have safe drinking water in remote communities of rural areas and disaster
Gaiasafe "The new developed gaiasafe filter wool makes it possible to clean water
by one step process variants of outstanding simplicity. Water dissolved
impurities and toxic compounds … can be eliminated by chemical reaction and
sorption in a one step processing stage now by gaiasafe filter wool."
Sand Filtration Construction and Production Guidelines. Medair,
a Swiss NGO active in relief and development work, has recently added technical
information on household sand filtration to their website. The information
includes blueprints, construction guidelines, material lists and a very detailed
photo guide, providing all information necessary for the fabrication of
household level slow sand filters, as well as the mould necessary for producing
these concrete filters. Medair has implemented successful sand filter
projects in Machakos District, Kenya and in Mozambique. Preparations are
underway for a similar programme in Madagascar. In Kenya six local
technicians were trained in construction, maintenance and marketing of the
filters. After one year 400 filters had been sold to rural households. After
Medair withdrew its support, two technicians continued the project. By Jan 2002
they had sold over 1,000 filters and opened 4 new workshops in additional
of Residual Disinfection - paper by Anushka Drescher of WaterHealth
International (Oct 1999).
Solar Solutions. Info & products
related to solar distillation.
water disinfection (SODIS) through plastic bottles - Source
article: "SODIS is a simple technology using solar radiation to inactivate
and destroy pathogenic micro-organisms present in the water. The treatment
basically consists of filling plastic bottles with water and exposing them
to full sunlight for about five hours. This alternative water treatment
option is for use mainly at household level, but can only produce 1 - 3
liters per person per day. The Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing
Countries (SANDEC) at the Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science
and Technology (EAWAG) in cooperation with numerous partners in developing
countries has developed and field tested this water treatment option. The
Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) has substantially cofinanced
the SODIS project."
Solarmar Int. Inc.
- "simple system of water disinfection, based on chlorine, which could
be adapted to utilize other compounds (iron?) as a practical remediation
process for potable water at the family level.... a simple system for disinfecting
raw water on family-sized scale for those people who do not have adequate
facilities in rural or urban areas of emerging countries." George
Greenbaum would welcome comments and feedback on this suggested alternative.
Arsenic Measurement Related Resources
USEPA Environmental Technology Verification of Arsenic Test Kits.
As part of its ongoing Environmental Technology Verification (ETV)
program, the USEPA has recently conducted rigorous reviews of four portable
arsenic analyzers. The USEPA ETV reports for these devices are online:
Engineering PeCo 75 and As 75 (same thing, one with electronic color
measurer, one visual)
Ltd. As-Top Water arsenic test kit
- Industrial Test
Systems, Inc., QuickT test kit arsenic analysis systems. See also
EXPLORER Portable Water Analyzer
The first three are based on arsine generation, while the fourth uses anodic
stripping voltammetry. Of the four, the AS 75 and the Quick test got the
best results. USEPA was not able to evaluate the Merck or Hach kits as those
manufacturers chose not to submit their kits to USEPA. [Information
graciously provided by Rick Johnston, Dept Environmental Sciences
Engineering, Univ. N. Carolina Chapel Hill, NC, USA. See also Rick's post
to the arsenic-crisis discussion group, Arsenic test kits: how they work.]
Dick Wilson's Measurement
of Arsenic Concentrations page.
Field Test Kits
devices for the reliable determination of low concentrations of total inorganic
arsenic (arsenite, arsenate) in water samples."
Arsenic Test Kit Takes
The Lab To The Field. Kit
developed by Gregory Miller while a NM Tech grad student, for collecting water
samples for later laboratory arsenic speciation analysis: "The kit contains
several columns that are treated with different types of resins and chemicals
that, in different combinations, allow some species of arsenic to pass out and
some to remain in the column to be saved for analysis. This process can be done
in the field in a 15-30 minute procedure with bottles capped, the kit sealed and
ready to be mailed to a laboratory for analysis. The kit, which is smaller than
a shoebox, contains all of the documentation necessary for a legally defensible
Hach Arsenic Test Kit
application note [60kb .pdf]- "This Application Note describes the Hach Arsenic Test Kit, which
determines arsenic levels from 0 - 500 µg/l using a safe, easy, and inexpensive visual
Press release July 2001, "New
Hach Test Kit Selected by Bangladesh for Arsenic Mitigation Program" [no
longer online]. Other arsenic-related information from Hach can be
found by searching their website using the
Jal-Tara Test Kit
For 14 Basic Biophysiochemical Water Parameters. "Jal-TARA is an
Indian-made cost-effective, portable, compact and easy to operate water testing kit
developed by the Environment Systems Branch of Development Alternatives....The
sturdy waterproof kit weighs 7 kg with dimensions of 16" x 12" x
9". The kit can test for 14 parameters in 100 samples of water (except the
coliform test, for which 10 samples can be tested):
- Physical - pH, temperature, turbidity
- Chemical - fluoride, chloride, residual chlorine, hardness, iron,
phosphate, ammonia, nitrate, dissolved oxygen
- Biological - coliform bacteria, benthic diversity
"The kit provides quantitative test for hardness, chloride, dissolved
oxygen and temperature. Semi-quantitative tests using colour comparison charts
are used for the remaining parameters. Reagents are essentially liquid. Other
accessories include beakers, syringes, plastic trays, glass test tubes and
gloves. A pictorial user's manual and field operational handbook are included,
which provide step-by-step instructions for each test. Reagents have a shelf
life of six months, with the exception of the starch reagent for the dissolved
oxygen tests (one month) and the coliform reagent (two years). Reagents can be
replenished and extra equipment can be ordered separately. Jal-TARA is
safe and simple to use, and is popular among school students as well as other
organizations for their water monitoring programme. The kit is being extensively
used for water quality monitoring in the CLEAN programme. Price: Rs 6500.00 +
S.T. @ 10% + freight"
NCL (India) User Friendly Field Test Kit for Measurement of Arsenic in
Drinking Water. "High lights of NCL developed
Arsenic Monitor-2000: 1. User friendly, can be used by villagers 2. No
electricity or battery required 3. A calibrated detector tube gives quantitative
data of the arsenic concentration in the water. 4. Time required for each test
is less than 10 minutes. 5. Arsenic determination possible at the source 6.
Highly sensitive: can detect arsenic at concentration levels from 5 PPB and
above 7. Speciation (i.e. As III and As V) possible 8. Permanent record of each
sample with the help of detector tube 9. Detector kits will be used continuously
at the installed arsenic removal systems 10.All reagents are in solid form; no
liquid or corrosive reagents used. This kit was developed with financial
support from UNICEF. The performance of the Kit was extensively evaluated
in Kolkata in terms of 1. Accuracy 2. Speed 3. Economy 4. User- friendly nature
5. Adaptable at village level monitoring. Cost of each kit is estimated to
be less then $100. One kit will be used for testing 100 water samples. Cost of
each sample test will be less then Rs 20/- compared with Rs. 1300/- per sample
by the continuous hydride generation atomic absorption method. For further
details email to firstname.lastname@example.org."
Arsenic Test Kit: "Arsenic test kit designed for the homeowner ... test is detectable to 10
ppb [sic]... safe and simple to perform without any special equipment."