References, 1999 & All Prior Years

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Arsenic concentrations in well water and risk of bladder and kidney cancer in Finland.  Kurttio, Pivi, Eero Pukkala, Hanna Kahelin, Anssi Auvinen, and Juha Pekkanen.  Environmental Health Perspectives Volume 107, Number 9, September 1999. [Abstract available online.]

Arsenic field measurement - A field-deployable instrument for the measurement and speciation of arsenic in potable water. Huilang Huang and Purnendu K. Dasgupta. Analytica Chimica Acta 380 (1999) 27-37. 

Arsenic groundwater contamination and sufferings of people in Rajnandgaon district, Madhya Pradesh, India. D.Chakraborti, B.K.Biswas, T.Roy Chowdhury, G.K. Basu, B.K. Mandal, U. K. Chowdhury, S.C. Mukherjee, J.P. Gupta, S.R. Chowdhury, K.C. Rathore. Current Science, 77(4), 502-504.

Arsenic in drinking water. Washington, National Research Council. 

Arsenic in Drinking Water. Commission on Life Sciences. National Academy Press. [Whole book online] (I haven't figured out yet if this and the previous reference are to the same book ... could be.)

Arsenic in drinking water-problems and solutions. T. Viraraghavan, K. S. Subramanian and J. A. Aruldoss. Wat. Sci. Technol. 40(2), 69-76. Abstract: "The current United States maximum contaminant level for arsenic in drinking water is set at 50 g/L.  Because of the cancer risks involved, Canada has already lowered the maximum contaminant level to 25 g/L; the United States Environmental Protection Agency is reviewing the current allowable level for arsenic with a view of lowering it significantly. Various treatment methods have been adopted to remove arsenic from drinking water. These methods include 1) adsorption-coprecipitation using iron and aluminum salts, 2) adsorption on activated alumina, activated carbon, and activated bauxite, 3) reverse osmosis, 4) ion exchange and 5) oxidation followed by filtration. Because of the promise of oxidation-filtration systems, column studies were conducted at the University of Regina to examine oxidation with KMnO4 followed by filtration using manganese greensand and iron-oxide coated sand to examine the removal of arsenic from drinking water; these results were compared with the data from ion exchange studies. These studies demonstrated that As (III) could be reduced from 200 g/L to below 25 g/L by the manganese greensand system. In the case of manganese greensand filtration, addition of iron in the ratio of 20:1 was found necessary to achieve this removal." [Abstract, full text with password.]

Arsenic in soils of eastern Bangladesh. Stuart Rojstaczer and Mohammed Riajul Islam,1999. Submitted to Environmental Sciences & Technology.

Arsenic induced keratosis and squamous cell carcinoma. Rahman M.  18th Annual Convention Indian Association for Cancer Research, organized by All-India of Institute of Medical Science, New Delhi, 19-21th February 1999 (proceedings).  Abstract.

Arsenic levels and prevalence of skin lesions. Rahman M. XI Meeting of International Epidemiological Conference, Florence 29 August - 4 September 1999 (proceedings).  Abstract.

Arsenic poisoning in the Ganges delta [brief communication]. Acharyya, S. K., P. Chakraborty, et al. [Or: Chowdhury, T. R., G. K. Basu, et al.?] Nature 401: 545. 

Arsenic poisoning in the Ganges delta [Reply]. McArthur, J. M. Nature 401: 546.

Arsenic treatment considerations.  Chen, H.-W., M. M. Frey, et al. Journal AWWA 91(3): 74-85.

Arsenicosis and deteriorating groundwater quality: Unfolding crisis in central-east Indian region [Rajnandgaon district, Madhya Pradesh]. Piyush Kant Pandey, Ram Narayan Khare, Ramesh Sharma, Santosh Kumar Sar, Madhurima Pandey, and Pramod Binayake. Current Science, Bangalore 77(5), 10 Sep 99, pp. 686-692.

Arsenicosis in a village in Bangladesh. Sk. Akhtar Ahmad, M.H. Salim Ullah Sayed, Sk. Abdul Hadi, M.H. Faruquee, Manzurul Haque Khan, Md. Abdul Jalil, Rukshana Ahmed, A. Wadud Khan. International Journal of Environmental Health Research 9(3) September 1, 1999, 187-195.  Abstract: The study was carried out in a village in Jessore district, Bangladesh, to identify the epidemiological characteristics of arsenicosis. Eighty-seven per cent of the tubewells had arsenic concentration more than the WHO maximum permissible limit of 0.05 mg l-1. The mean arsenic concentration was 0.240 mg l-1 and the maximum concentration was 1.371 mg l-1. Of the total 3606 villagers, 10% (363) were found to be suffering from arsenicosis. Most of the arsenicosis patients were between 10 to 39 years of age. There were more male patients (52.6%). There were no patients among villagers who consumed tubewell water having arsenic levels less than 0.082 mg l-1. The majority (93.4%) of the patients were in the first and second stage of arsenicosis. With increasing exposure to arsenic, a simultaneous increase in the severity of clinical manifestations of arsenicosis was observed (F = 43.699; p = 0.000). The time-weighted arsenic exposure varied from 0.248 to 5.482 mg day-1 and the mean was 1.918 mg day-1. Melanosis was present in almost all the patients (99.5%) and keratosis was present in 68.9%. Cancer (basal cell epithelioma) was present in three (0.8%) patients. The duration of clinical manifestations of arsenicosis varied from 1 to 12 years and the majority were suffering for 4-6 years.  [At Taylor & Francis.]

Arsenite methylation by methylvitamin B12 and glutathione does not require an enzyme. Zakharyan RA, Aposhian HV. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1999 Feb 1;154(3):287-91. [Abstract]

Dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic. Schoof, R.A., J. Eickhoff, L.J. Yost, E.A. Crecelius, D.W. Cragin, D.M. Meacher, D.B. Menzel. pp. 81-88. In: Proc. Third International Conference on Arsenic Exposure and Health Effects. W.R. Chappell, C.O. Abernathy, and R.L. Calderon (eds). Elsevier Science Ltd.

Diabetes mellitus and arsenic exposure-results of three epidemiological studies.  Rahman M, M Tondel, O Axelson. International conference on arsenic pollution of ground water in Bangladesh: causes, effects and remedies, Dhaka, Bangladesh (proceedings).  Abstract.

Drinking water arsenic in Utah: a cohort mortality study. Denise Riedel Lewis, J. Wanless Southwick, Rita Ouellet-Hellstrom, Jerry Rench, and Rebecca L. Calderon. Environmental Health Perspectives 107(5), May. Abstract The association of drinking water arsenic and mortality outcome was investigated in a cohort of residents from Millard County, Utah. Median drinking water arsenic concentrations for selected study towns ranged from 14 to 166 ppb and were from public and private samples collected and analyzed under the auspices of the State of Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Drinking Water. Cohort members were assembled using historical documents of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Standard mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated. Using residence history and median drinking water arsenic concentration, a matrix for cumulative arsenic exposure was created. Without regard to specific exposure levels, statistically significant findings include increased mortality from hypertensive heart disease [SMR = 2.20; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.36-3.36], nephritis and nephrosis (SMR = 1.72; CI, 1.13-2.50), and prostate cancer (SMR = 1.45; CI, 1.07-1.91) among cohort males. Among cohort females, statistically significant increased mortality was found for hypertensive heart disease (SMR = 1.73; CI, 1.11-2.58) and for the category of all other heart disease, which includes pulmonary heart disease, pericarditis, and other diseases of the pericardium (SMR = 1.43; CI, 1.11-1.80). SMR analysis by low, medium, and high arsenic exposure groups hinted at a dose relationship for prostate cancer. Although the SMRs by exposure category were elevated for hypertensive heart disease for both males and females, the increases were not sequential from low to high groups. Because the relationship between health effects and exposure to drinking water arsenic is not well established in U.S. populations, further evaluation of effects in low-exposure populations is warranted.  [At EHP Online.]   From author Wanless's message entitled, "Utah Arsenic Research (1977 - 1997)"  posted to the arsenic-medical discussion group:  "We studied death patterns in Utah communities (which probably had the highest levels of arsenic in drinking water of any United States communities). Levels of over 150 parts per billion were common. Some drinking water tested over 300 parts per billion.  If the risks of dying of cancer from arsenic in tap water were as great as described in the NRDC document, we should have seen dozens of people who died of cancer from arsenic. Out of 2,203 deaths in these communities, no evidence of arsenic caused cancers were found."  - J. Wanless Southwick, Ph.D.  [See also follow up  message at

Environmental pollution and chronic arsenicosis in Bangladesh.  Hasnat AH and M Rahman. J Occup Health 1999;41:000-000 (in press).

Extremely high concentration of arsenic and its speciation in groundwater from Bangladesh.  Salminen, R., Islam, Md. R., and Lahermo, P. Geological Survey of Finland, Special paper 27: 103 - 106.

Flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry for determination of arsenic in water and biological samples from arsenic affected districts of West Bengal, India and Bangladesh. Samanta, T. Roy Chowdhury, B. K. Mandal, B.K. Biswas, U.K. Chowdhury, G. K. Basu, R. Chanda, D. Lodh and D. Chakraborti. Microchemical Journal, 62, 174-191.  Abstract: The increasing concern over human exposure to arsenic in West Bengal and Bangladesh has necessitated the development of a rapid method for determination of trace levels of arsenic in water and biological samples. We have developed a simple indigenous flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS) system for the determination of arsenic in parts per billion levels in water and biological samples. The technique is fast, simple, and highly sensitive. The accuracy and precision of the method were evaluated by spiking known amounts of arsenic and analyzing different types of environmental and biological standard reference materials. The organic matter in a biological sample was destroyed by acid digestion and dry ashing technique. We analyzed thousands of tubewell water samples from the affected districts of West Bengal and Bangladesh. Most of the water samples contained a mixture of arsenite and arsenate and in none of them could we detect methylated arsenic. We also analyzed thousands of urine (inorganic arsenic and its metabolites), hair, and nail samples and hundreds of skin-scale and blood samples of people drinking arsenic-contaminated water and showing arsenical skin lesions. Quality control was assessed by interlaboratory analysis of hair samples. An understanding of arsenic toxicity and metabolism requires quantitation of individual arsenic species. The techniques we used for the determination and speciation of arsenic are (i) separation of arsenite and arsenate from water by sodium diethyldithiocarbamate in chloroform followed by FI-HG-AAS; (ii) determination of arsenite in citrate/citric buffer at pH 3 and total arsenic in water in 5 M HCl by FI-HG-AAS. Thus, arsenate is obtained from the difference; (iii) for analysis of inorganic arsenic and its metabolites in urine FI-HG-AAS was used after separation of the species with a combined cation-anion exchange column. Total arsenic in urine was also determined by FI-HG-AAS after acid decomposition. The species arsenite and arsenate are present in groundwater in about a 1:1 ratio and about 90% of the total arsenic in urine is present as inorganic arsenic and its metabolites.

Genesis of high arsenic groundwater in the Bengal Delta Plains, West Bengal and Bangladesh. Mattias von Brömssen.  M.Sc. thesis 1999, Environmental Engineering, Royal School of Technology, Stockholm. "Water samples from wells in Chakdaha, West-Bengal, India and Bangladesh were analysed for a number of chemical parameters... This investigation has produced no support for the first aerobic hypothesis ... [that] when groundwater is withdrawn, oxygen may enter the aquifer and oxidise the primary sulphides and subsequently releases arsenic and sulphate in groundwater.] On the contrary, it strongly forwards the second anaerobic hypothesis [that] arsenic may be derived as a result of desorption and reductive dissolution of the surface reactive mineral phases such as hydrous ferric, aluminium and manganese oxides (HFO, HAO and HMO) present as coatings in the aquifer sediments." [Abstract and full text online.]

Groundwater arsenic contamination and sufferings of people in Bangladesh. U.K. Chowdhury, B. K. Biswas, R. K. Dhar, G. Samanta, B.K. Mandal, T.Roy Chowdhury, D. Chakraborti, S.Kabir, S. Roy, pp. 165-182.  In: Arsenic Exposure and Health Effects, W. R. Chappell, C.O.Abernathy, R.L. Calderon, eds. Elsevier, Amsterdam-Lausanne-New York-Oxford-Tokyo.

Groundwater arsenic contamination and sufferings of people in West Bengal, India and Bangladesh: status report up to March 1998. B.K. Mandal, B.K. Biswas, R.K. Dhar, T.Roy Chowdhury, G. Samanta. G.K. Basu, C.R. Chanda, K.C. Saha, S. Kabir, S. Roy and D. Chakraborti, pp. 41-65. In: Metals and Genetics, Bibudhendra Sarkar, ed., Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York.

Hydrogeological investigation of ground water arsenic contamination in south Calcutta.  Chatterjee, A. and A. Mukherjee. Sci Total Environ 225(3): 249-62. Typical clinical symptoms of acute arsenic poisoning have been detected in 1000 residents near a factory in P.N. Mitra Lane, Behala, South Calcutta, located in a thickly populated area manufacturing copper acetoarsenite (Paris-Green) an arsenical pesticide for the past 25 years. Soil around the effluent dumping point of the factory was exceptionally contaminated, with arsenic, copper and chromium concentrations of 20,100-35,500 mg kg-1, 33,900-51,100 mg kg-1 and 5300- 5510 mg kg-1. Arsenic and copper concentrations in bore-hole soils collected up to a depth of 24.4 m at the effluent dumping point, decreased with depth. Arsenous acid, arsenic acid, methylarsonic acid (MA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were detected in bore-hole soils up to a depth of 1.37 m, after which only inorganic arsenical compounds were present. A positive correlation was established between arsenic and copper authenticated the Paris-Green waste disposal site as the source of contamination. Mechanism of ground water contamination from this disposal site had been probed by a systematic hydrogeological survey and the arsenic content of the tube-well waters in the surrounding areas. Hydraulic conductivity was maximum in the central part. The site for disposal of the effluent was a ditch located in the zone of discharge. Sparingly soluble Paris-Green cumulatively deposited in the waste disposal site is decomposed by micro-organisms to water- soluble forms and finally percolated to underground aquifers along with rain water through the discharge zone. The contaminant is currently moving towards WNW with ground water flow and the residents in the direction of encroaching contamination are insecure due to penetration of the contaminant.

Hypertension and arsenic exposure in Bangladesh. Rahman, M., M. Tondel, et al. Hypertension 33(1): 74-8. A prevalence comparison of hypertension among subjects with and those without arsenic exposure through drinking water was conducted in Bangladesh to confirm or refute an earlier observation of a relation in this respect. Wells with and without present arsenic contamination were identified, and we interviewed and examined 1595 subjects who were depending on drinking water from these wells for living, all >/=30 years of age. The interview was based on a questionnaire, and arsenic exposure was estimated from the history of well-water consumption and current arsenic levels. Of the 1595 subjects studied, 1481 had a history of arsenic-contaminated drinking water, whereas 114 had not. Time-weighted mean arsenic levels (in milligrams per liter) and milligram-years per liter of arsenic exposure were estimated for each subject. Exposure categories were assessed as <0.5 mg/L, 0.5 to 1.0 mg/L, and >1.0 mg/L and alternatively as <1.0 mg-y/L, 1.0 to 5.0 mg- y/L, >5.0 but </=10.0 mg-y/L, and >10.0 mg-y/L, respectively. Hypertension was defined as a systolic blood pressure of >/=140 mm Hg in combination with a diastolic blood pressure of >/=90 mm Hg. Corresponding to the exposure categories, and using "unexposed" as the reference, the prevalence ratios for hypertension adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index were 1.2, 2.2, 2.5 and 0.8, 1.5, 2.2, 3.0, in relation to arsenic exposure in milligrams per liter and milligram- years per liter, respectively. The indicated dose-response relationships were significant (P<<0.001) for both series of risk estimates. These results suggest that arsenic exposure may induce hypertension in humans.

Influence of microbes on the mobilization, toxicity and biomethylation of arsenic in soil. Turpeinen, R., Panstar-Kallio, M., Haggblom, M., Kairesalo, T. Science Total Environ 236: 173 - 180.E. Smith, R. Naidu and A.M. Alston. 1998. Arsenic in the soil environment: A review. Advances in Agronomy, vol 64: 149 - 195.

A longitudinal investigation of solid-food based dietary exposure to selected elements. Scanlon KA, MacIntosh DL, Hammerstrom KA, Ryan PB. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol Sep-Oct 1999; 9(5):485-93.  Abstract: As part of a longitudinal investigation of environmental exposures to selected chemical contaminants, the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS), food consumption and duplicate diet samples were obtained in each of six sampling cycles from up to 80 individuals in Maryland during 1995-1996. Duplicate diet samples were weighed and analyzed for arsenic, cadmium, chromium and lead and were used to derive average daily intakes of each element. Mean log-transformed concentrations of arsenic and cadmium in duplicate diet samples and derived intakes of chromium were found to vary significantly among sampling cycles. Repeated observations of dietary exposure metrics from the same individual over time were highly variable. The results suggest that distributions of dietary exposure to arsenic and cadmium do vary for a population within a 1-year period, while those for chromium and lead do not. This may result in single measurements of exposure being sufficient to characterize population variability for these latter two elements. However, even for those elements not displaying statistically significant temporal variability for the population, a single dietary exposure measurement may still not be sufficient to characterize accurately chronic dietary exposure levels for individuals.  [Abstract online.]

A market basket survey of inorganic arsenic in food.  Schoof, R., L. Yost, et al. Food Chem Toxicol 37(8): 839-46. Dietary arsenic intake estimates based on surveys of total arsenic concentrations appear to be dominated by intake of the relatively non-toxic, organic arsenic forms found in seafood. Concentrations of inorganic arsenic in food have not been not well characterized. Accurate dietary intake estimates for inorganic arsenic are needed to support studies of arsenic's status as an essential nutrient, and to establish background levels of exposure to inorganic arsenic. In the market basket survey reported here, 40 commodities anticipated to provide at least 90% of dietary inorganic arsenic intake were identified. Four samples of each commodity were collected. Total arsenic was analysed using an NaOH digestion and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Separate aliquots were analysed for arsenic species using an HCl digestion and hydride atomic absorption spectroscopy. Consistent with earlier studies, total arsenic concentrations (all concentrations reported as elemental arsenic per tissue wet weight) were highest in the seafoods sampled (ranging from 160 ng/g in freshwater fish to 2360 ng/g in saltwater fish). In contrast, average inorganic arsenic in seafood ranged from less than 1 ng/g to 2 ng/g. The highest inorganic arsenic values were found in raw rice (74 ng/g), followed by flour (11 ng/g), grape juice (9 ng/g) and cooked spinach (6 ng/g). Thus, grains and produce are expected to be significant contributors to dietary inorganic arsenic intake.

The relationship of arsenic levels in drinking water and the prevalence rate of skin lesions in Bangladesh. Tondel M, M Rahman, et al. Environmental Health Perspectives 1999; 107:727-729.  Abstract:  To determine the relationship of arsenic-associated skin lesions and degree of arsenic exposure, a cross-sectional study was conducted in Bangladesh, where a large part of the population is exposed through drinking water. Four villages in Bangladesh were identified as mainly dependent on wells contaminated with arsenic. We interviewed and examined 1,481 subjects [Greater/equal to] 30 years of age in these villages. A total of 430 subjects had skin lesions (keratosis, hyperpigmentation, or hypopigmentation). Individual exposure assessment could only be estimated by present levels and in terms of a dose index, i.e., arsenic levels divided by individual body weight. Arsenic water concentrations ranged from 10 to 2,040 microg/L, and the crude overall prevalence rate for skin lesions was 29/100. After age adjustment to the world population the prevalence rate was 30. 1/100 and 26.5/100 for males and females, respectively. There was a significant trend for the prevalence rate both in relation to exposure levels and to dose index (p < 0.05), regardless of sex. This study shows a higher prevalence rate of arsenic skin lesions in males than females, with clear dose-response relationship. The overall high prevalence rate in the studied villages is an alarming sign of arsenic exposure and requires an urgent remedy.  [Abstract online at MedLine.]

Possible arsenic contamination free groundwater source In Bangladesh. D. Chakraborti, B. K. Biswas, G.K. Basu, U.K. Chowdhury, T. Roy Chowdhury, D. Lodh, C.R. Chanda, B. K. Mandal, G. Samanta, A. K. Chakraborti, M. M. Rahman, K. Paul, S. Roy, S. Kabir, B. Ahmed, R. Das, M. Salim, Q. Quamruzzaman. J.  Surface Sci. Technol., 15(3-4), 179-187. [Full text available online.]

Prevention of cytotoxic effects of arsenic by short-term dietary supplementation with selenium in mice in vivo. Biswas, S., G. Talukder, et al. Mutation Research 441(1): 155-160. Interaction between selenium and arsenic has been used to protect against the genotoxic effects of sodium arsenite through dietary intervention by an equivalent amount (1/10 LD50) of sodium selenite. The two salts were administered by gavaging to laboratory bred Swiss albino mice sequentially and in combination. Cytogenetic endpoints, including chromosomal aberrations (CA) and damaged cells (DC) were recorded 24 h after exposure from chromosome spreads in bone marrow cells. Administration of sodium selenite 1 h before sodium arsenite reduced the clastogenic effect of the latter significantly. The protection was less when the salts were given together and negative when arsenite was given before selenite. Histological changes were recorded. Such reduction of arsenic toxicity through dietary intervention by selenium is of significance in protecting against the widespread toxicity observed in human populations exposed to arsenic through drinking water from contaminated deep tubewells in West Bengal and Bangladesh.

Relations between exposure to arsenic, skin lesions, and glucosuria. Rahman, M. and M. Tondel. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 56(4): 277-281. Objectives-Exposure to arsenic causes keratosis, hyperpigmentation, and hypopigmentation and seemingly also diabetes mellitus, at least in subjects with skin lesions. Here we evaluate the relations of arsenical skin lesions and glucosuria as a proxy for diabetes mellitus. Methods-Through existing measurements of arsenic in drinking water in Bangladesh, wells with and without arsenic contamination were identified. Based on a questionnaire, 1595 subjects greater than or equal to 30 years of age were interviewed; 1481 had a history of drinking water contaminated with arsenic whereas 114 had not. Time weighted mean arsenic concentrations and mg- years/l of exposure to arsenic were estimated based on the history of consumption of well water and current arsenic concentrations. Urine samples from the study subjects were tested by means of a glucometric strip. People with positive tests were considered to be cases of glucosuria. Results-A total of 430 (29%) of the exposed people were found to have skin lesions. Corresponding to drinking water with <0.5, 0.5- 1.0, and >1.0 mg/l of arsenic, and with the 114 unexposed subjects as the reference, the prevalence ratios for glucosuria, as adjusted for age and sex, were 0.8, 1.4, and 1.4 for those without skin lesions, and 1.1, 2.2, and 2.6 for those with skin lesions. Taking exposure as <1.0, 1.0-5.0, >5.0-10.0 and >10.0 mg-years/l of exposure to arsenic the prevalence ratios, similarly adjusted, were 0.4, 0.9, 1.2, and 1.7 for those without and 0.8, 1.7, 2.1, and 2.9 for those with skin lesions. All series of risk estimates were significant for trend, (p<0.01). Conclusions-The results suggest that skin lesions and diabetes mellitus, as here indicated by glucosuria, are largely independent effects of exposure to arsenic although glucosuria had some tendency to be associated with skin lesions. Importantly, however, glucosuria (diabetes mellitus) may occur independently of skin lesions.

The relationship of arsenic levels in drinking water and the prevalence rate of skin lesions in Bangladesh. Tondel M.; Rahman M.; Magnuson A.; Chowdhury I.A.; Faruquee M.H.; Ahmad Sk.A. Environmental Health Perspectives, 107(9), 727-729.  "Abstract: To determine the relationship of arsenic-associated skin lesions and degree of arsenic exposure, a cross-sectional study was conducted in Bangladesh, where a large part of the population is exposed through drinking water. Four villages in Bangladesh were identified as mainly dependent on wells contaminated with arsenic. We interviewed and examined 1481 subjects 30 years of age in these villages. A total of 430 subjects had skin lesions (keratosis, hyperpigmentation, or hypopigmentation). Individual exposure assessment could only be estimated by present levels and in terms of a dose index, i.e., arsenic levels divided by individual body weight. Arsenic water concentrations ranged from 10 to 2040 g/L, and the crude overall prevalence rate for skin lesions was 29/100. After age adjustment to the world population the prevalence rate was 30.1/100 and 26.5/100 for males and females, respectively. There was a significant trend for the prevalence rate both in relation to exposure levels and to dose index (p < 0.05), regardless of sex. This study shows a higher prevalence rate of arsenic skin lesions in males than females, with clear dose-response relationship. The overall high prevalence rate in the studied villages is an alarming sign of arsenic exposure and requires an urgent remedy."

Relationship between respiratory effects and skin lesions of chronic arsenicosis in Bangladesh. Rahman M and AH Milton. Occup Environ Med (submitted).

Requirements for a biologically realistic cancer risk assessment for inorganic arsenic. Harvey J Clewell, P Robinan Gentry, Hugh A Barton, Annette M Shipp, Janice W Yager, Melvin E Andersen. nternational Journal of Toxicology, 18(2) March 1, 1999, 131-147.  Abstract: A remarkable feature of the carcinogenicity of inorganic arsenic (Asi) is the observation that human exposures to Asi have been strongly associated with increases in skin, lung, and internal cancers, but Asi does not typically cause tumors in standard laboratory animal test protocols. Considerable controversy has centered on whether there is epidemiological evidence of a ''threshold'' for the carcinogenic effects of Asi , or at least of a highly nonlinear dose-response Saturation of metabolism in the dose-range associated with tumors does not appear to be adequate to produce a major impact on the dose-response for carcinogenicity. If there is a strong nonlinearity, it results from the nature of the carcinogenic mechanism(s) of Asi. However, no single hypothesis for the mechanism of Asi carcinogenicity has widespread support. A biologically realistic cancer risk assessment for Asi would require a quantitative description of the dose of active arsenic species in target tissues, the interactions between active arsenic and tissue constituents, and the manner in which these interactions result in tumor formation in multiple organs in humans, but not in experimental animals. Although Asi has only infrequently been associated with tumors in animal studies, it has repeatedly been shown to act as a comutagen in vitro and as a cocarcinogen in vivo. Asi is clastogenic, produci ing chromatid aberrations, but does not produce point mutations at single gene loci. Of particular interest, Asi has been shown to inhibit repair of DNA single-strand breaks, a possible mechanism for its observed comutagenicity and cocarcinogenicity. We propose a cocarcinogenic mode of action in which Asv acts primarily on intermediate cells deficient in cell cycle control at a late stage in a preexisting carcinogenic process. This interaction enhances genomic fragility and accelerates conversion of premalignant lesions to more aggressive, clinically observable tumors. An indirect effect of Asi on DNA repair is consistent with the expectation of a nonlinear dose-response rather than the linear dose-response traditionally assumed for mutagenic carcinogens. However, defining the exact nature of this tumor dose-response will require further experimental data on the dose-response for the cellular effects of Asi . Because As carcinogenicity is unlikely to be observed in nor mal experimental animals not exposed to other carcinogens, studies in animals and cell lines deficient in cell cycle control should also be considered. Experimental studies specifically designed to address the key mechanistic and dose-response issues for Asi carcinogenicity are critically needed to support public health policy decisions regarding current environmental exposures to Asi.  [At Taylor & Francis.]

Surface structural ion adsorption modeling of competitive binding of oxyanions  by metal (hydr)oxides.  Hiemstra T and W.H.Van Riemsdijk. Journal of Colloid and Interface Sci. 210, 182-193 (1999).  [Application of CD-MUSIC model to arsenate phosphate interaction covering most of the As binding literature.]


Analytical chemistry of arsenic in drinking water. Andrew Eaton, Hsaio Chiu Wang, Jack Northington. AWWARF Project #914, Catalog Order # 90729. Available online through the AWWA Bookstore. Members / nonmembers price USD125 / USD195. [Full description online].

Anomalous arsenic concentrations in groundwaters of an island community, Bowen Island, British Columbia. Boyle, D. R., R. J. W. Turner, et al. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 20(4): 199-212. Recently, occurrences of elevated arsenic concentrations in bedrock groundwaters used for individual and municipal water supplies have been recognized along the mainland coast of southern British Columbia, Canada. An area on Bowen Island (Queen Charlotte Heights community) was chosen to investigate the source(s) of arsenic, geochemical processes controlling its aqueous uptake, the role of geology and structure in the formation of these waters, and the use of hydrogeochemical survey methods for detecting arsenious groundwater regions. Pyrite-arsenopyrite-Cu mineralisation in the Queen Charlotte Heights is present as veins associated with NE-trending fault zones and as disseminations in marginal breccia and stockwork zones of a rhyodacite porphyry stock. Near surface mineralisation was later altered by supergene events to form minor pyrite-arsenopyrite in a matrix of limonite and clay. Geochemical factors that control the concentration and mobility of arsenic in these groundwaters include: (a) anion exchange of arsenic from clay minerals during cation divalent/univalent exchange processes (water softening) which leads to waters of high pH and high anion exchange capacities; (b) desorption of arsenic from Fe and Al oxyhydroxide minerals during pronounced shifts in pH from acid to alkaline conditions brought on by the water softening process; and (c) stepwise oxidation of arsenopyrite mineralisation to form arsenious sulphate-bearing groundwaters. The inconsistent behaviour of the As3+ and As5+ ions during the complex water-rock interaction processes described above, precludes the use of detailed chemical analyses to predict relative abundances of the more toxic As3+ species. For a full appreciation of the toxic impact of groundwaters containing total arsenic concentrations that area above regulatory guidelines an arsenic speciation analysis is required.

Arsenic and hypertension in Bangladesh.  Tondel M, O Axelson, IA Chowdhury, M Rahman. Proceedings of Annual Doctors Conference at Gothenburg, Sweden 24-26th November, 1998. Abstract.

Arsenic coprecipitation in low-temperature pyrites; implications for bioremediation via sulfate reducing bacteria. Thomas, R. C. and J. A. Saunders. In: Geological Society of America, 1998 annual meeting, Geological Society of America (GSA). Boulder, CO, United States. 1998. To test for the potential of biogenic sulfate reduction as a remediation technique for arsenic-contaminated waters, two sites were studied that contained low-temperature arsenic-bearing pyrite. The sites, with distinct depositional histories, are: (1) pyrite replacing lignitized wood in terrace deposits along Uphapee Creek (Macon County, Alabama), and (2) pyrite-rich calcite caprock from the Hazlehurst Salt Dome (Copiah County, Mississippi). At Uphapee Creek, pyrite replacing wood contains up to 1000 ppm As. It is proposed that weathering of Piedmont metamorphic rocks continuously releases arsenic in low levels to Uphapee Creek. Sorption reactions with oxyhydroxides led to the fixation of arsenic on solid surfaces over a long time period. Deposition of oxyhydroxides with woody material during a Pleistocene flood event created conditions for the development of sulfate reducing bacterial communities once a shallow water table developed in the alluvial deposits. Bacterial activity caused conditions around logs and mediated the following general reaction: Fe (super 2+) + C (sub org) + SO (sub 4) (super 2-) + H (sub 2) O + O (sub 2) --> FeS (sub 2) (py) + HCO (super 3-) + CO (sub 2) . Reducing conditions led to the dissolution of iron oxyhydroxides and release of sorbed arsenic. Based on textural and geochemical evidence, the arsenic-bearing pyrite is believed to have precipitated directly from solution. The pyrite-rich calcite caprock at Hazlehurst Salt Dome formed as a result of biomediated reactions between oil-field brines and the underlying anhydrite caprock. Pyrite at Hazlehurst formed via biogenic sulfidation of precursor iron monosulfides and exhibits arsenic-rich (up to 4% As) bands. Electron microprobe and x-ray diffraction analyses of Uphapee and Hazlehurst pyrites indicate that arsenic apparently substitutes for iron in the pyrite crystal lattice. These results suggest that arsenic may be sequestered into iron sulfides at low temperatures in differing pathways of pyrite formation (direct precipitation vs. sulfidation of iron monosulfides). It should be noted that the presence of a local source of organic carbon to fuel the sulfate reduction process is necessary. This has major implications for bioremediation focusing on bacterial sulfate reduction as a means of metal removal from contaminated water.

An arsenic exposure model: probabilistic validation using empirical data. Cohen, J.T., B.D. Beck, T.S. Bowers, R.L. Bornschein, and E.J. Calabrese. Hum. Ecol. Risk Assess. 4(2):341-377. 

Arsenic in drinking water. How much is too much? Rahman, M. and I. Chowdhury (1998).  In Touch Feb(1-2).

Arsenic-induced keratosis and squamous cell carcinoma. Rahman M, P Söderkvist P, BL Rozell, O Axelson. International Symposium Workshop on Epidemiology and Prevention of Cancer, November 2-5, 1998, Bangkok, Thailand (proceedings).  Abstract.

Arsenic-laced water in Chile [letter; comment] Biggs, M. L., R. Haque, et al. Science 281(5378): 785.

Arsenic levels in drinking water and the prevalence of skin lesions. Rahman M, M Tondel, IA Chowdhury. International Symposium Workshop on Epidemiology and Prevention of Cancer, November 2-5, 1998, Bangkok, Thailand (proceedings).  Abstract.

Arsenic levels in drinking water and the prevalence of skin lesions in West Bengal, India.  Guha Mazumder, D. N., R. Haque, N. Ghosh, B.K. De, A. Santra, D. Chakraborti and A. H. Smith.  Int J Epidemiol 27(5): 871-7.  Background: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between April 1995 and March 1996 to investigate arsenic-associated skin lesions of keratosis and hyperpigmentation in West Bengal, India, and to determine their relationship to arsenic water levels. Methods: In all, 7683 participants were examined and interviewed, and the arsenic levels in their drinking water measured. RESULTS: Although water concentrations ranged up to 3400 g/L of arsenic, over 80% of participants were consuming water containing <500 g/L. The age-adjusted prevalence of keratosis was strongly related to water arsenic levels, rising from zero in the lowest exposure level (<50 g/L) to 8.3 per 100 for females drinking water containing >800 g/L, and increasing from 0.2 per 100 in the lowest exposure category to 10.7 per 100 for males in the highest exposure level (> or =800 g/L). However, 12 cases with keratosis (2 females and 10 males) were drinking water containing <100 g/L of arsenic. Findings were similar for hyperpigmentation, with strong dose-response relationships. Among those with hyperpigmentation, 29 cases were exposed to drinking water containing <100 g/L. Calculation by dose per body weight showed that men had roughly two to three times the prevalence of both keratosis and hyperpigmentation compared to women apparently ingesting the same dose of arsenic from drinking water. Subjects who were below 80% of the standard body weight for their age and sex had a 1.6 fold increase in the prevalence of keratoses, suggesting that malnutrition may play a small role in increasing susceptibility. Conclusion: The surprising finding of cases who had arsenic-associated skin lesions with apparently low exposure to arsenic in drinking water needs to be confirmed in studies with more detailed exposure assessment. Further research is also needed concerning susceptibility factors which might be present in the exposed population.

Arsenic poisoning of Bangladesh groundwater. R. Nickson, J.M. McArthur, W.G. Burgess, M. Ahmed, P. Ravenscroft and M. Rahman. Nature, Volume 395, page 338, 24th Sept, 1998. [Full text & figures available online]. In Bangladesh and West Bengal, alluvial Ganges aquifers used for public water supply are polluted with naturally occurring arsenic, which adversely affects the health of millions of people. Here we show that the arsenic derives from the reductive dissolution of arsenic-rich iron oxyhydroxides, which in turn are derived from weathering of base-metal sulphides. This finding means it should now be possible, by sedimentological study of the Ganges alluvial sediments, to guide the placement of new water wells so they will be free of arsenic.

Arsenic removal from geothermal bore waters: the effect of mono-silicic acid. Swedlund, P. J. and J. G. Webster. Water-Rock Interaction-9. G. B. Arehart and J. R. Hulston. Rotterdam, Balkema: 947-950.

Association between the clastogenic effect in peripheral lymphocytes and human exposure to arsenic through drinking water. Maki-Paakkanen J et al. Environ. Molecular Mutagenesis 32(4):301-313.  Abstract: "Consumption of arsenic-contaminated well water has been previously associated with the development of cancer. In this study, the authors showed a relationship between consumption of arsenic-contaminated well water and the development of chromosomal aberrations among residents of Finland. The chromosomal aberrations were of a type associated with a future risk of cancer, and were most highly correlated with arsenic exposure among current well-water ingestors. This work adds to scientific work indicating that arsenic is an important carcinogen with specific implications for populations that have arsenic-contaminated well water (e.g. deep well users in the U.S., and large populations of Taiwan, Chile, and Bangledesh)."

Calcutta's industrial pollution:  groundwater arsenic contamination in a residential area and sufferings of people due to industrial effluent discharge - An eight-year study report. D. Chakraborti, G. Samanta, B.K. Mandal, T. Roy Chowdhury, C.R. Chanda, B.K. Biswas, R.K. Dhar, G.K. Basu and K.C. Saha. Current Science 74(4), 346-355.

Cancer mortality trends in a blackfoot disease endemic community of Taiwan following water source replacement. Tsai SM, TN Wang, YC Ko J.  Toxicol Environ Health A 1998 Nov 27;55(6):389-404.  [Abstract]

Chronic arsenic toxicity in west Bengal--the worst calamity in the world.  Guha Mazumder, D. N., J. Das Gupta, et al.  J Indian Med Assoc 96(1): 4-7, 18. Since 1983 large number of people are being encountered with arsenic toxicity due to drinking of arsenic contaminated water (0.05-3.2 mg/l) in 6 districts of West Bengal. Clinical and various laboratory investigations were carried out on 156 patients to ascertain the nature and degree of morbidity and mortality that occurred due to chronic arsenic toxicity. All the patients studied had typical rain drop like skin pigmentation (being inclusion criteria) while thickening of palm and sole were found in 65.5% patients. Other features included weakness (70%), gastro-intestinal symptoms (58.6%), involvement of respiratory system (57.08%) and nervous system (50.6%). Lung function tests showed restrictive lung disease in 53% (9/17) and combined obstructive and restrictive lung disease in 41% (7/17) of patients. Abnormal electromyography was found in 34.8% (10/29) and altered nerve conduction velocity in 34.8% (10/29) of cases. Enlargement of liver was found in 120 cases (76.9%) while splenomegaly in 31.4% cases. Liver function test showed elevated globulin level in 15.8% and alkaline phosphatase in 51.3%, alanine amino transferase (ALT) in 11.8% and aspartate amino transferase (AST) in 27.6% of cases. Evidence of portal hypertension was found in 33.3% patients. Liver biopsy reports of 45 patients showed non-cirrhotic portal fibrosis in 41, cirrhosis in 2 and normal histology in 2 cases. There was no correlation between the quantity of arsenic taken through water and the level of arsenic in hair, nail, liver tissues and the degree of fibrosis. There were 5 deaths of which one had skin cancer. The various non-cancer manifestations which were observed in these patients were much severe than those reported in similar cases in other parts of the world.

Chronic arsenicism and squamous cell carcinoma- a case report.  Rahman M, M Tondel, O Axelson. International Symposium Workshop on Epidemiology and Prevention of Cancer, November 2-5, 1998, Bangkok, Thailand (proceedings).  Abstract.

Considerations in arsenic analysis and speciation. Edwards, M., S. Patel, et al.  Journal AWWA 90(3): 103-113. Arsenic in drinking water is often talked about as if it were a single, uniform material. To the contrary, it wears several faces. It may be organic or inorganic; inorganic arsenic may be dissolved, colloidal, or particulate; dissolved arsenic may be arsenite [As(III)] or arsenate [As(V)]. In order to make well-grounded treatment decisions about arsenic-a regulated substance in drinking water-managers must know the concentration of total arsenic plus the character and quantity of each arsenic component in the supply. Determining total arsenic is fairly straightforward. Several methods are in use, and all work well in the hands of a careful technician. Because organic arsenic rarely is present at concentrations above 1 g/L, it is not considered further. Most inorganic arsenic is dissolved. However, in some water more than half the total arsenic is in the form of very fine particulates that can be removed by filters. The presence of colloidal or particulate arsenic may produce falsely high measurements of As(III). To help suppliers identify arsenic species, an anion exchange method was modified for use in the field. The method requires no preservation, provides results in 4 minutes, is easy to use, and costs about $10 per sample. Discussions about regulating arsenic will be based on national surveys of arsenic occurrence. If these surveys use methods that give incorrect results, little will be gained. Techniques described in this article will lead to more accurate analyses and ultimately to a better regulation.

Cost to utilities of a lower MCL for arsenic (Journal Article). Chowdhury, Z.K.; Edwards, M.A.; Frey, M.M.; Owen, D.M.; Raucher, R.S.; Hagler Bailly Services -Boulder, CO, US In: Journal American Water Works Association; vol. 90, no. 3 (1998); p. 89-102 : 6 fig., 8 tab.. - 35 ref.

Dearsenation of drinking water by means of coagulation in Bangladesh (Report, unpublished document). Liang, Q.; Technical University of Denmark -Lyngby, DK. - Lyngby, Denmark, Technical University of Denmark, 1998. - xi, 81 p. + 15 appendixes (37 p.) : 38 fig., 20 tab. C958419 65 ref. - Master Thesis.

Detailed study report of Samta, one of the arsenic-affected villages of Jessore District, Bangladesh. Biggs, M. L., R. Haque, et al. [or Bhajan K. Biswas, Ratan K. Dhar, Gautam Samanta, Badal K. Mandal, Imtiaz Faruk, Kazi Saiful Islam, Md. Moniruzzaman Chowdhury, Ashraful Islam and Shibtosh Roy and Dipankar Chakraborti.?]  Current Science 74(2): 134-145. In Bangladesh, arsenic in groundwater above 0.05 mg/l, the maximum permissible limit laid down by WHO, was found in 41 out of 64 districts. People suffering from arsenicosis have been identified in 20 districts out of the 21 districts we have surveyed so far. To know the magnitude of the calamity, it was necessary to survey thousands of villages in the 41 districts. To get an idea about the situation, we surveyed in detail one village, Samta, in Jessore district, having a population of 4841. All the tubewells in the village were analysed for arsenic. A few hundred hair, nail and urine samples were analysed as well to know the arsenic burden on the population. Furthermore, 600 people were examined for arsenical dermatosis. We have attempted a statistical interpretation of the data.

Diabetes mellitus associated with arsenic exposure in Bangladesh. Rahman, M., M. Tondel, et al.  Am J Epidemiol 148(2): 198-203.  The objective of this study was to assess whether arsenic exposure is a risk factor for diabetes mellitus as indicated in a few earlier studies. Arsenic in drinking water is known to occur in western Bangladesh, and in 1996, two of the authors conducted a survey of the prevalence of diabetes mellitus among 163 subjects with keratosis taken as exposed to arsenic and 854 unexposed individuals. Diabetes mellitus was determined by history of symptoms, previously diagnosed diabetes, glucosuria, and blood sugar level after glucose intake. The crude prevalence ratio for diabetes mellitus among keratotic subjects exposed to arsenic was 4.4 (95% confidence interval 2.5-7.7) and increased to 5.2 (95% confidence interval 2.5-10.5) after adjustment for age, sex, and body mass index. On the basis of a few earlier measurements of arsenic concentrations in drinking water by the authorities in Bangladesh and another 20 new ad hoc analyses, approximate time- weighted exposure levels to arsenic in drinking water could be estimated for each subject. Three time-weighted average exposure categories were created, i.e., less than 0.5, 0.5-1.0, and more than 1.0 mg/liter. For the unexposed subjects, the corresponding prevalence ratios were 1.0, 2.6, 3.9, and 8.8, representing a significant trend in risk (p < 0.001). The result corroborates earlier studies and suggests that arsenic exposure is a risk factor for diabetes mellitus.

Diabetes mellitus - some epidemiological observation with regard to arsenic exposure. Rahman M. Proceedings of Diabetes and Endocrine Conference 1998, BIRDEM, Dhaka, Bangladesh.  Abstract.

Dietary arsenic intake in Taiwanese districts with elevated arsenic in drinking water. Schoof, R.A., L.J. Yost, E. Crecelius, K. Irgolic, H.-R. Guo, and H.L. Greene. Hum. Ecol. Risk Assess. 4(1):117-136.

Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), a non-toxic, water-soluble treatment for heavy metal toxicity. AL Miller. Altern Med Rev 1998 Jun;3(3):199-207.  Abstract: Heavy metals are, unfortunately, present in the air, water, and food supply. Cases of severe acute lead, mercury, arsenic, and cadmium poisoning are rare; however, when they do occur an effective, non-toxic treatment is essential. In addition, chronic, low- level exposure to lead in the soil and in residues of lead-based paint, to mercury in the atmosphere, in dental amalgams and in seafood, and to cadmium and arsenic in the environment and in cigarette smoke is much more common than acute exposure. Meso- 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) is a sulfhydryl-containing, water-soluble, non-toxic, orally-administered metal chelator which has been in use as an antidote to heavy metal toxicity since the 1950s. More recent clinical use and research substantiates this compound s efficacy and safety, and establishes it as the premier metal chelation compound, based on oral dosing, urinary excretion, and its safety characteristics compared to other chelating substances.  [Abstract online.]

Exposure to inorganic arsenic metabolites during early human development. Concha, G., G. Vogler, et al.  Toxicol Sci 44(2): 185-90. Because of the lack of data on the exposure to and toxic effects of inorganic arsenic during early human development, the transfer of arsenic to the fetus and suckling infant was studied in a native Andean population, living in the village San Antonio de los Cobres in the North west of Argentina, where the drinking water contains about 200 micrograms/liter. The concentration of arsenic in cord blood (median, 9 micrograms/liter) was almost as high as in maternal blood (median, 11 micrograms/liter), and there was a significant correlation between the two. Thus, at least in late gestation, arsenic is easily transferred to the fetus. The median concentration of arsenic in the placenta was 34 micrograms/kg, compared with 7 micrograms/kg previously reported for nonexposed women. Interestingly, essentially all arsenic in the blood plasma of both the newborns and their mothers was in the form of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), the end product of inorganic arsenic metabolism. Similarly, about 90% of the arsenic in the urine of both the newborns and mothers in late gestation was present as DMA, compared with about 70% in nonpregnant women (p < 0.001). This may indicate that methylation of arsenic is increased during pregnancy and that DMA is the major form of arsenic transferred to the fetus. The increased methylation in late gestation was associated with lower arsenic concentrations in blood and higher concentrations in urine, compared with a few months postpartum. The arsenic concentrations in the urine of the infants decreased from about 80 micrograms/liter during the first 2 days of life to less than 30 micrograms/liter at 4.4 months (p = 0.025). This could be explained by the low concentrations of arsenic in the breast milk, about 3 micrograms/kg.

Factors controlling As and U in shallow ground water, southern Carson Desert, Nevada. Welch, A. H. and M. S. Lico. Appl. Geochem 13(4): 521-539. Unusually high As and U concentrations (>100  g/L) are widespread in shallow ground water beneath the southern Carson Desert. The high concentrations, which locally exceed 1000  g/L, are of concern from a human health standpoint because the shallow ground water is used for domestic supply. Possible affects on wildlife are also of concern because the ground water flows into shallow lakes and marshes within wildlife refuges. Arsenic and U concentrations in ground water of the southern Carson Desert appear to be affected by evaporative concentration, redox reactions, and adsorption. The relation of these elements with Cl suggest that most of the high concentrations can be attributed to evaporative concentration of Carson River water, the primary source of recharge. Some ground water contains higher As and U concentrations that cannot be explained by evaporative concentration alone. Oxidation-reduction reactions, involving metal oxides and sedimentary-organic matter, appear to contribute As, U, inorganic C, Fe and Mn to the ground water. Arsenic in Fe-oxide was confirmed by chemical extraction and is consistent with laboratory adsorption studies. Uranium in both sedimentary-organic C and Fe-oxide coatings has been confirmed by fission tracks and petrographic examination. Arsenic concentrations in the ground water and chemical extracts of aquifer sediments are broadly consistent with adsorption as a control on some dissolved As concentrations. An apparent loss of As from some ground water as evaporative concentration proceeds is consistent with adsorption as a control on As. However, evidence for adsorption should be viewed with caution, because the adsorption model used values for the adsorbent that have not been shown to be valid for the aquifer sediments throughout the southern Carson Desert. Hydrologic and geochemical conditions in the Carson Desert are similar to other areas with high As and U concentrations in ground water, including the Salton Sea basin and southern San Joaquin Valley of California. Hydrologic and geochemical conditions that produced some sandstone-type U-ore deposits, including those in the non-marine, closed-basin sediments of the Morrison Formation near Grants, New Mexico, suggest that the Carson Desert may be a modern analog for those systems.

Feasibility of New Epidemiologic Studies of Low Level Arsenic. Allan H. Smith. AWWARF Project #288, Catalog #90755. Available online at  the AWWA Bookstore. Price members / nonmembers USD125 / USD195. [Full description online.]

Geochemical mapping and speciation of arsenic in the groundwater of Faridpur municipality, Bangladesh. Ullah, S. S.  Journal of Bangladesh Academy of Sciences 22(1): 143-147. A detailed mapping of Faridpur municipality. Over 500 samples were collected and measured for arsenic, including speciation. GPS was used to record well locations. Highest concentrations were invariably found in shallow wells. Distinct local patterns were observed: the highest concentrations lay almost in a straight line parallel to the old bank of the Ganges. There were also a few small hot spots.

Granular ferric hydroxide -- a new adsorbent for the removal of arsenic from natural water.  W. Driehaus, M. Jekel, U. Hildebrandt Journal of Water Science, Research and Technology --Aqua Vol. 47, pp. 30-35. [The article is on a new treatment method. The described media is available and is used successfully for arsenic removal in Germany.]

Human exposures to arsenic from consumption of well water in West Bengal, India. Subramanian, K. S. and M. J. Kosnett.  Int J Occup Environ Health 4(4): 217-30.  The authors visited the State of West Bengal, India, in August 1996, as consultants to the World Health Organization (WHO). The general mandate of the mission was to formulate recommendations to the Government of India regarding its efforts to assist the Government of West Bengal in remedying health problems arising from the presence of arsenic in groundwater in excess of the WHO guideline limit of 0.05 mg/L in eight districts of the State. The authors held discussions with Government of India and Government of West Bengal officials, as well as scientists, engineers, and physicians studying the analytic, medical, engineering, and hydrogeologic facets of the problem. They conducted field visits to arsenic-affected villages; inspected health centers, including the laboratories conducting the analytic and clinical studies; and interviewed and examined local lay people, including many arsenic- poisoned patients. This overview of the arsenic contamination problem in West Bengal is based upon a review of the scientific literature and government reports and the authors direct, firsthand assessment. The authors hope that their recommendations will assist in the development of a comprehensive infrastructure and plan of action, which are necessary to control the epidemic of chronic arsenic poisoning now afflicting West Bengal.

Immobilization mechanism of arsenic in waste solidified using cement and lime. Dutre, V. and C. Vandecasteele.  Environmental Science and Technology 32(18): 2782-2787.  The material studied, a waste fly ash from the metallurgical industry, contains the toxic element As in high concentrations, ranging from 23% to 47% (wt %). Besides As, Sb and Pb are present in the waste material. The waste was solidified with inorganic materials such as cement and pozzolanic materials in order to reduce the leachability of the contaminants from the waste. The optimal solidification recipe lowered the As concentration in the leachate of the extraction test DEIN 38 414 S4 from ca. 5 g/l to ca. 5 mg/l. In this paper, it was shown that this enormous reduction in As concentration was due to the formation of CaHAsO3 in the leachate, in the presence of Ca(OH)2. Formation of CaHASO3 alone cannot lower the arsenic concentration beneath ca. 55 mg/l, as was calculated with the speciation program MINTEQA2.

Impact of safe water for drinking and cooking on five arsenic-affected families for 2 years in West Bengal, India. Mandal, B. K., T. R. Chowdhury, G. Samanta, D.P. Mukherjee, C.R. Chanda, K.C. Saha, D. Chakraborti.  Sci Total Environ 218, 185-201. The groundwater in seven districts of West Bengal, India, covering an area of 37,000 km2 with a population of 34 million, has been contaminated with arsenic. In 830 villages/wards more than 1.5 million people, out of the total population, drink the arsenic-contaminated water. Safe water from a source having <0.002 mg 1(-1) arsenic has been supplied for 2 years to five affected families comprising 17 members (eight of them with arsenical skin-lesions) of different age groups for impact assessment study in terms of loss of arsenic through urine, hair and nail. The study indicates random observable fluctuations of arsenic concentration in urine among members on different scheduled sampling days with a declining trend, particularly during the first 6 months. Furthermore, the investigation showed that despite having safe water for drinking and cooking, the study group could not avoid an intake of arsenic, time and again, through edible herbs grown in contaminated water, food materials contaminated through washing, and the occasional drinking of contaminated water. After minimizing the level of contamination, a noteworthy declining trend after 8 months was observed in urine, hair and nails in all the cases, but not to that level observed in a normal population, due to prevailing elevated background level of arsenic in the area. The eight members, who had already developed skin lesions, are far from recovering completely, indicating a long-lasting damage. Statistical interpretation of the data are considered.

Intake of inorganic arsenic in the North American diet.  Yost, L.J., R.A. Schoof, and R. Aucoin. 1998. Hum. Ecol. Risk Assess. 4:137-152.

Likelihood ratio analysis of skin cancer prevalence associated with arsenic in drinking water in the USA. Valberg, P.A., B.D. Beck, P.D. Boardman, and J.T. Cohen. Env. Geochemistry and Health 20(2):61-66.

Low-level arsenic excretion in breast milk of native Andean women exposed to high levels of arsenic in the drinking water. Concha, G., G. Vogler, et al.  Int Arch Occup Environ Health 71(1): 42-6. Objective: To investigate the excretion of arsenic in breast milk of lactating native Andean women living in a village in northwestern Argentina with high concentrations of arsenic in the drinking water (about 200 micrograms/l) and to assess the exposure of children to arsenic during the very first period of life. Methods: The study included ten lactating women and two nursing babies. Hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS) was used to determine the concentration of arsenic in samples of human milk, drinking water, blood, and urine. Results: The concentrations of arsenic detected in maternal blood (total arsenic) and urine (metabolites of inorganic arsenic) were high, averaging 10 and 320 micrograms/l, respectively. In subjects without known exposure to arsenic the average concentrations found in blood and urine are 1-2 and about 10 micrograms/l, respectively. The metabolites of inorganic arsenic constituted more than 80% of the total arsenic in the urine, which shows that inorganic arsenic was the main form of arsenic ingested. The average concentration of arsenic detected in human milk was 2.3 micrograms/kg fresh weight (range 0.83-7.6 micrograms/kg). Although data on background levels of arsenic in human breast milk are scarce, the present concentrations seem to be slightly elevated. However, considering the high levels of arsenic exposure in the mothers, the total arsenic concentrations measured in human milk were low. In concordance with the low concentrations of arsenic found in the milk, the concentrations of arsenic metabolites measured in the urine of two of the nursing babies were low: 17 and 47 micrograms/l, respectively. Conclusions: The low concentrations of arsenic detected in the breast milk and urine of the two nursing babies in relation to the high level of maternal exposure to arsenic indicate that inorganic arsenic is not excreted in breast milk to any significant extent. This is a very important reason for long breast-feeding periods.

Lung and kidney cancer mortality associated with arsenic in drinking water in Cordoba, Argentina. Hopenhayn-Rich C, ML Biggs.  Int J Epidemiol Aug;27(4):561-9. [Abstract]

Main Report Phase I, Groundwater Studies of Arsenic Contamination in Bangladesh. British Geological Survey and Mott-MacDonald International Ltd. (BGS/MMI)  [See ACIC's version of the executive summary for an explanation of the editions/versions available.]

Marked increase in bladder and lung cancer mortality in a region of Northern Chile due to arsenic in drinking water. Smith, A. H., M. Goycolea, et al.  Am J Epidemiol 147(7): 660-9. [Abstract] Studies in Taiwan and Argentina suggest that ingestion of inorganic arsenic from drinking water results in increased risks of internal cancers, particularly bladder and lung cancer. The authors investigated cancer mortality in a population of around 400,000 people in a region of Northern Chile (Region II) exposed to high arsenic levels in drinking water in past years. Arsenic concentrations from 1950 to the present were obtained. Population-weighted average arsenic levels reached 570 g/L between 1955 to 1969, and decreased to less than 100 g/L by 1980. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated for the years 1989 to 1993. Increased mortality was found for bladder, lung, kidney, and skin cancer. Bladder cancer mortality was markedly elevated (men, SMR = 6.0 (95% confidence interval (CI) 4.8-7.4); women, SMR = 8.2 (95% CI 6.3-10.5)) as was lung cancer mortality (men, SMR = 3.8 (95% CI 3.5-4.1); women, SMR = 3.1 (95% CI 2.7-3.7)). Smoking survey data and mortality rates from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease provided evidence that smoking did not contribute to the increased mortality from these cancers. The findings provide additional evidence that ingestion of inorganic arsenic in drinking water is indeed a cause of bladder and lung cancer. It was estimated that arsenic might account for 7% of all deaths among those aged 30 years and over. If so, the impact of arsenic on the population mortality in Region II of Chile is greater than that reported anywhere to date from environmental exposure to a carcinogen in a major population.

Metabolism of inorganic arsenic in children with chronic high arsenic exposure in northern Argentina. Concha, G., B. Nermell, et al.  Environ Health Perspect 106(6): 355-9. This study concerns the metabolism of inorganic arsenic (As) in children in three villages in northern Argentina: San Antonio de los Cobres and Taco Pozo, each with about 200 microg As/l in the drinking water, and Rosario de Lerma, with 0.65 microg As/l. Findings show that the concentrations of As in the blood and urine of the children in the two As-rich villages were on average 9 and 380 g/L, respectively, the highest ever recorded for children. The concentrations were about 10 and 30 times higher for blood and urine, respectively, than in Rosario de Lerma. Total As in urine was only slightly higher than the sum of metabolites of inorganic As (U-Asmet), i.e., inorganic As, methylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA); this shows that inorganic As was the main form of As ingested. In contrast to previous studies on urinary metabolites of inorganic As in various population groups, the children and women in the present study excreted very little MMA. Thus, there seems to be a polymorphism for the enzymes (methyltransferases) involved in the methylation of As. Interestingly, the children had a significantly higher percentage of inorganic As in urine than the women, about 50% versus 32%. Also, the percentage of inorganic As in the children is considerably higher than in previous studies on children (about 13% in the two studies available) and adults (about 15-25%) in other population groups. This may indicate that children are more sensitive to As-induced toxicity than adults, as the methylated metabolites bind less to tissue constituents than inorganic As. In the children, the percentage inorganic arsenic in urine decreased, and the percentage of DMA increased with increasing U-Asmet, indicating an induction of As methylation with increasing exposure.  [Paper available online.]

Mobilization of mercury and arsenic in humans by sodium 2,3-dimercapto-1-propane sulfonate (DMPS). Aposhian HV. Environ Health Perspect 1998 Aug;106 Suppl 4:1017-25.  [Abstract]

Randomized placebo-controlled trial of 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid in therapy of chronic arsenicosis due to drinking arsenic-contaminated subsoil water.  Guha Mazumder, D. N., U. C. Ghoshal, et al.  J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 36(7): 683-90. Introduction: Chronic arsenic toxicity producing various clinical manifestations is currently epidemic in West Bengal, India, Bangladesh, and other regions of the world. Animal studies have indicated that 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid can be used as an oral chelating agent. A prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial was carried out to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid for chronic arsenicosis due to drinking arsenic-contaminated (> or = 50 micrograms/L) subsoil water in West Bengal. Method: Twenty-one consecutive patients with chronic arsenicosis were individually randomized (random number; assignment made by individual not evaluating patients) into 2 groups: 11 patients (10 male, age 25.5 +/- 8 years) received 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid 1400 mg/d (1000 mg/m2) in the first week and 1050 mg/d (750 mg/m2) during the next 2 weeks with a repeat course 3 weeks later. The other 10 patients (all male, age 32.2 +/- 9.7 years) were given placebo capsules for the same schedule. The clinical features were evaluated by an objective scoring system before and after treatment. Routine investigations including liver function tests, arsenic concentrations in urine, hair, and nails, and skin biopsy evaluations were also completed. Results: Though there was improvement in the clinical score of 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid- treated patients, similar improvement was observed in the placebo- treated group. There were no statistical differences in the clinical scores between the 2 groups at the beginning and at the end of treatment. Similarly, no differences were found for the other investigated parameters. Conclusion: Under the conditions of this study, 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid was not effective in producing any clinical or biochemical benefit or any histopathological improvement of skin lesions in patients with chronic arsenicosis.

Selenium and arsenic in the environment in Finland. Lahermo, P., G. Alfthan, et al.  J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol 17(3-4): 205-16. A characteristic feature of glaciated Precambrian environments is their low selenium content, as a chalcophile element, Se, replaces sulfur in many of the sulfide minerals, for example, pyrite, chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, and pentlandite. The average Se concentration in rocks and related till deposits in Finland is in the range of 0.01 to 0.2 mg/kg. Due to geologicalconditions, Se concentrations in surface and ground water are low in Finland compared with other countries. In a nationwide study dealing with the hydrogeochemistry of headwater streams, the median Se concentration in streams during August to September 1990 was 30 to 180 g/L. For comparison, Se concentrations in shallow well waters are generally in the range of 50 to 1000 g/L. The Se concentrations in stream sediments varied from 0.03 to 3.94 mg/kg. There was a highly significant correlation between the Se concentrations in stream water and in stream sediment. The streams with Se concentrations exceeding the general level in both water and sediment were most common in southern Finland. A speciation study on Finnish stream waters revealed that there were equal proportions of Se complexed with humic substances (36%) and Se as a selenate species (36%), whereas selenite accounted for less than 10% of total Se. About 8% of the Se in stream water occurred in particulate form. In an effort to enhance the Se intake of Finns through diet, Se-supplemented fertilizers have been used nationwide since 1985. While greatly improving Se levels in the population, the measure has raised concerns about undesirable environmental effects. Therefore, the amount of Se added to fertilizers has been reduced since 1991. Differing in behavior from Se, arsenic is considered one of the most toxic metals derived from the natural environment. Alarm has been triggered in Finland by the recent lowering from 50 g/L to 10 g/L of the upper level of As permissible in potable water, the recent information of high As concentrations in water from drilled bedrock wells, and the findings of international medical studies suggesting that As is a carcinogen. The most important source of As is arsenopyrite (FeAsS). Hence, high As concentrations most frequently occur in areas of sulfide mineralization, often in connection with occurrences of mafic rocks such as gabbros, amphibolites, and peridotites. The As concentrations in till fines, the most common glaciogenic soil type in Finland, reflect those in bedrock. The concentrations in groundwater are controlled by the chemical composition of the bedrock and the soil and prevailing hydrogeochemical conditions, for example, pH and Eh levels. Arsenic concentrations are lowest in surface water and swiftly flowing shallow ground water discharged by springs and are somewhat higher in shallow wells dug into overburden. By far, the highest As concentrations are to be found in wells drilled into bedrock (maximum 1 to 2 mg/L), although the concentrations vary by several orders of magnitude from well to well. The highest probability of encountering deleteriously arsenious well water is in areas with characteristic As anomalies in the till and bedrock. Hence, it is important to understand local geological conditions, particularly in the case of wells drilled into bedrock. The risk of deleteriously high As concentrations occurring in captured springs and shallow wells is slight.

Using biogeochemistry of trace arsenic contamination in groundwater in Zimapan, Mexico. Crawford, S., H. Mango, et al.  In: Geological Society of America, Northeastern Section, 33rd annual meeting; abstracts, Geological Society of America (GSA). Boulder, CO, United States.


The arsenic calamity in Bangladesh (Journal Article). Dahi, E.; DANIDA -Copenhagen, DK In: ITN Bangladesh newsletter; no. 2 (1997); p. 1-6 : 1 fig., 4 tab.. - 14 ref.

Arsenic contamination in ground water and arsenicosis in Bangladesh. Sk. Akhtar Ahmad, Don Bandaranayake, Abdul Wadud Khan, Sk. Abdul Hadi Giasuddin, Md. Abdul Halim. International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 7(4) December 1, 1997, 271-276.  Abstract: Arsenic contamination of ground water has been found in Rajarampur village in the Nawabgonj district of north-western Bangladesh. A recent survey has indicated that 11% of tubewell water contains arsenic in the range 0.01 mg/l to 0.05 mg/l, and 29% above the WHO maximum permissible limit of 0.05 mg/l. None of the water samples from tubewells of less than 60 ft depth showed arsenic levels above 0.05 mg/l. Of the 1273 people exposed to this contaminated water supply, 7.5% showed clinical manifestations of arsenicosis. The majority of these (59.4%) were female. There were no cases below 7 years of age. The most frequently seen clinical manifestations were melanosis (98.9%), keratosis (92.7%), hyperkeratosis (45.8%), depigmentation (29.2%), anorexia (26.0%) and cough (25.0%). Hepatomegaly was detected in 3.2% of the population and there was one case of squamous-cell carcinoma. The article also describes the use of a validated field test for the detection of arsenic in water.  [At Taylor & Francis.]

Arsenic contamination of groundwater and its remedial action plan in West Bengal. AIIH&PH. In: Consultation on arsenic in drinking water and resulting arsenic toxicity in India and Bangladesh, WHO, New Delhi, 1997.

Arsenic in drinking water and incidence of urinary cancers. Guo HR, HS Chiang, H Hu, SR Lipsitz, RR Monson.  Epidemiology Sep;8(5):545-50.  [Abstract]

Arsenic in drinking water and resulting arsenic toxicity in India and Bangladesh - recommendations for action. WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia, New Delhi. WHO pamphlet SEA/EH/505 [Full text available online].

Arsenic in groundwater - geological overview. S. K. Acharyya. In: Consultation on arsenic in drinking water and resulting arsenic toxicity in India and Bangladesh, WHO, New Delhi, 1997.

Arsenic in groundwater in Bangladesh. P L Smedley. In: Consultation on arsenic in drinking water and resulting arsenic toxicity in India and Bangladesh, WHO, New Delhi, 1997.

Arsenic in groundwater in six districts of West Bengal. Dipankar Das, Gautam Samanta, B K Mandal, T R Chowdhury, C R Chanda, P P Chowdhury, Gautam Basu and D Chakraborti. In: Consultation on arsenic in drinking water and resulting arsenic toxicity in India and Bangladesh, WHO, New Delhi, 1997.

Arsenic in groundwater in six districts of West Bengal, India-the biggest arsenic calamity in the world: the status report up to August, 1995. Tarit Roy Chowdhury, Badal Kr. Mandal, Gautam Samanta, Gautam Kr. Basu, Partha P.Chowdhury, Chitta R.Chanda, Nirmal Kr.Karan, Dilip Lodh, Ratan Kr.Dhar, Dipankar Das, K.C.Saha and Dipankar Chakraborti. In: Arsenic - Exposure and Health Effects, edited by C.O.Abernathy, R.L. Calderon and W.R. Chappell Chapter 9: 91-111, 1997; Publisher: Chapman & Hall.

Arsenic in groundwater in six districts of West Bengal, India: the biggest arsenic calamity in the world: the status report up to August 1995. T. R. Chowdhury, B. K. Manal, G. Samanta, G. K. Basu, P. P. Chowdhury, C. R. Chanda, N. K. Karan, D. Lodh, R. K. Dhar, D. Das, K. C. Saha and D. Chakroborti. In: Consultation on arsenic in drinking water and resulting arsenic toxicity in India and Bangladesh, WHO, New Delhi, 1997.

Arsenic in ground water in West Bengal. S. P. Sinha Ray. In: Consultation on arsenic in drinking water and resulting arsenic toxicity in India and Bangladesh, WHO, New Delhi, 1997.

Arsenic management in drinking water. Saumyendra Nath Mukherji. In: Consultation on arsenic in drinking water and resulting arsenic toxicity in India and Bangladesh, WHO, New Delhi, 1997.

Arsenic occurrence and speciation in groundwater, Hanford, CA: Implications for health effects and treatment options. Janet G. Hering and Van Q. Chiu. In: CSCE/ASCE Environmental Engineering Conference, Edmonton, 1997.

Arsenic pollution of groundwater in Samta village, Jessore, Bangladesh. Hiroshi Yokota, Kimiko Tanabe, Yashuhiro Akiyoshi, Kazuyuki Kawahara, Mitsuo Hashiguchi, Wadud Kahn, Akhtar Ahmad and Abdul Hadi. Miyazaki University, AAN, NIPSOM, Dhaka, 1997.

Arsenic removal from drinking water during coagulation. Janet Hering, Pen-Yuang Chen, Jennifer A. Wilkie and Menachem Elimelech. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 123 (8): 800-807, 1997.

Chronic arsenic toxicity in West Bengal. B.K. Mandal, T. Roy Chowdhury, G.Samanta, G.K.Basu, P.P.Chowdhury, C.R.Chanda, D.Lodh, N.K.Karan, R.K.Dhar, D.T.Tamili, D.Das, K.C.Saha and D.Chakraborti. Current Science, 72(2), 114-117, 1997.

Chronic neuropathy due to arsenic intoxication from geo-chemical source - a 5-year follow-up. D Basu, J Das Gupta, A Mukherjee and D N Guha Mazumder. In: Consultation on arsenic in drinking water and resulting arsenic toxicity in India and Bangladesh, WHO, New Delhi, 1997.

DMPS-arsenic challenge test. I: Increased urinary excretion of monomethylarsonic acid in humans given dimercaptopropane sulfonate. Aposhian HV, Arroyo A, Cebrian ME, del Razo LM, Hurlbut KM, Dart RC, Gonzalez-Ramirez D, Kreppel H, Speisky H, Smith A, Gonsebatt ME, Ostrosky-Wegman P, Aposhian MM. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1997 Jul;282(1):192-200.  [Abstract]

Enzymatic methylation of arsenic species and other new approaches to arsenic toxicity. Aposhian HV. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 1997;37:397-419.  [Abstract]

Evaluation of the validity of the US EPAs cancer risk assessment of arsenic for low-level exposures: a likelihood ratio approach. How-Ran Guo, Environmental Geochemistry and Health 19 (9):133-142, 1997.

Excerpts from "Arsenic contamination of drinking water in Bangladesh". J.M. Dave. In: Consultation on arsenic in drinking water and resulting arsenic toxicity in India and Bangladesh, WHO, New Delhi, 1997.

Excerpts from "Technical report and action plan for arsenic in drinking water in Bangladesh focusing on health". Allan H. Smith. In: Consultation on arsenic in drinking water and resulting arsenic toxicity in India and Bangladesh, WHO, New Delhi, 1997.

Experiences with large scale arsenic toxicity in other parts of the world. Allan Smith. In: Consultation on arsenic in drinking water and resulting arsenic toxicity in India and Bangladesh, WHO, New Delhi, 1997.

Groundwater arsenic calamity in Bangladesh. Ratan K. Dhar, Bhajan Kr. Biswas, Gautam Samanta, Badal Kr. Mandal, D. Chakraborti, Shibtosh Roy, Abu Jafar, Ariful Islam, Gulshan Ara, Saiful Kabir, A. Wadud Khan, S. Akther Ahmed and S. Abdul Hadi Current Science, Vol. 73, No. 1, 48-59, 1997.

Health effects of arsenic toxicity. Wadud Abdul Khan. In: Consultation on arsenic in drinking water and resulting arsenic toxicity in India and Bangladesh, WHO, New Delhi, 1997.

Inorganic arsenic: a need and an opportunity to improve risk assessment. Chappell WR, B.D. Beck, K.G. Brown, R. Chaney, C. Richard Cothern, K.J. Irgolic, D.W. North, I. Thornton, and T.A. Tsongas. Env. Health Persp. 105(10):1060-1067. October.  Abstract available online.

Manganese greensand for removal of arsenic in drinking water.  K.S. Subramanian, T. Viraraghavan, T. Phommavong and S. Tanjore. Water Quality Research Journal of Canada, 32(3): 551-561. Abstract: "The present study was initiated to identify treatment techniques suitable for the removal of As from small community groundwater supplies below the current interim maximum acceptable (IMAC) concentration of 25 g/L prescribed in the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality. The effectiveness of manganese greensand filtration (MGSF), including the effect of Fe(II) in the influent, was studied in batch (intermittent) and column (continuous) modes. Batch studies based on the Freundlich adsorption isotherm model showed that the percent removal efficiency of arsenic by MGSF to the IMAC value was 60 for 24-h equilibration. Column studies gave an overall percent removal efficiency of 41. However, in the presence of Fe(II), especially at an Fe/As concentration ratio of 20, manganese greensand gave an overall efficiency of 83% and a throughput volume of 1,440 L. Results showed that at a Fe/As ratio of at least 20 and in the presence of Fe(II), manganese greensand is capable of removing As to below the IMAC value, under continuous mode of operation and when the influent As concentration is <200 g/L."

Metabolic methylation is a possible genotoxicity-enhancing process of inorganic arsenics.  Yamanaka K., Hayashi. H., Tachikawa M., Kato K., Hasegawa A., Oku N.,and Okada S. Mutat. Res., 394:95-101.

Non-cancer effects of chronic arsenicosis with special reference to liver damage. N. Guha Mazumder, J. Das Gupta, A. Santra, A. Pal, A. Ghose, S. Sarkar, N. Cattopadhaya and D. Chakraborti, pp. 112-123.  In: Arsenic - Exposure and Health Effects, C.O.Abernathy, R.L. Calderon, and W.R.Chappell, eds., Chapman & Hall, New York.

Non-cancer effects of chronic arsenicosis with special reference to liver damage. D.N. Guha Mazumder, J. Das Gupta, A. Santra, A. Pal, A. Ghose, S. Sarkar, N. Chattopadhaya and D. Chakroborti. In: Consultation on arsenic in drinking water and resulting arsenic toxicity in India and Bangladesh, WHO, New Delhi, 1997.

Occurrence of arsenic contaminated groundwater in alluvial aquifers from Delta Plains, Eastern India: Options for safe drinking water supply. P. Bhattacharya, D. Chatterjee, and G. Jacks. Int. Jour. Water Resources Management, 13(1): 79-92.

Report of study of the impact of the Bangladesh Rural Electrification Program on groundwater quality. NRECA. Dhaka, 1997.

Subsurface arsenic occurrence and depth of contamination in Bangladesh. Karim, M. M., Y. Komori, and M. Alam, J. of Environmental Chemistry, 7(4), 783-792. [Abstract available online]

Working paper on arsenic in drinking water in Bangladesh and its intervention. DPHE. Department of Public Health Engineering, Dhaka, 1997.

World Health Organization guideline value for arsenic in drinking water. Hend Galal-Gorchev. In: Consultation on arsenic in drinking water and resulting arsenic toxicity in India and Bangladesh, WHO, New Delhi, 1997.


Adsorption of arsenic onto hydrous ferric oxide: effects of adsorbate/adsorbent ratios and co-occurring solutes. Jennifer A. Wilkie and Janet G. Hering. Colloids and Surfaces: Physiochemical and Engineering Aspects, 107 97-110, 1996.

Arsenic calamity due to ground water pollution in West Bengal. D. N. Guha Mazumder. In: Consultation on arsenic in drinking water and resulting arsenic toxicity in India and Bangladesh, WHO, New Delhi, 1996.

Arsenic in groundwater in seven districts of West Bengal, India - the biggest arsenic calamity in the world. B K Mandal, T R Chowdhury, G Samanta, G K Basu, P P Chowdhury, C R Chanda, N K Lodh, N K Karan, R K Dhar, D K Tamili, K C Saha and D Chakraborti. Current Science, 70 (11): 976-987, 1996.

Arsenic in groundwater in seven districts of West Bengal,India-The biggest arsenic calamity in the world. Badal K.Mandal, Tarit Roy Chowdhury, Gautam Samanta, Gautam K.Basu, Partha Pratim Chowdhury, Chitta R. Chanda, Dilip Lodh, Nirmal K.Karan, Ratan K.Dhar, Dipak K.Tamili, Dipankar Das, K.C.Saha & D.Chakraborti. Current Science, 70(11),976-986, June 1996.

Arsenic in ground water in six districts of West Bengal, India. Dipankar Das, Gautam Samanta, Badal Kumar Mondal, Chitta R. Chanda, Partha Pratim Chowdhury, Gautam Kumar Basu & Dipankar Chakraborti. Environmental Geochemistry & Health,18(1),5-15,1996. [Full text & graphics available online: see HTML version (415k total for text + linked graphics) republished permission EGH.  EGH's 5.2Mb Acrobat .PDF file is not currently available online.]

Arsenic removal by enhanced coagulation and membrane processes. Janet G. Hering and Menachem Elimelech. AWWARF Catalog Order # 90706. Available online at  the AWWA Bookstore. Price members / nonmembers USD125 / USD195. [Full description online].

Arsenic removal. 18DTP, Dhaka, 1996.

Arsenic removal by ferric chloride. Janet G. Hering, Pen Yuan Chen, Jennifer A. Wilkie, Menachem Elimelech and Sun Liang. Journal American Water Works Association, 88 (4): 155-167, 1996.  Abstract: Laboratory studies on arsenic removal were carried out to compare coagulation with ferric chloride and adsorption onto preformed hydrous ferric oxide. Adsorption was found to be an important (though not the sole) mechanism governing arsenic removal during coagulation. Better removal was observed with arsenic (V) [As(V)] than with arsenic (III) [As(III)] in both coagulation and adsorption. The effect of variations in pH and in the presence of sulphate was investigated.

Dietary exposures to selected metals and pesticides. David L. MacIntosh, John D. Spengler, Halk zkaynak, Ling-hui Tsai, and P. Barry Ryan. Environmental Health Perspectives 104:202-209 (1996).  Abstract: Average daily dietary exposures to 11 contaminants were estimated for approximately 120,000 U.S. adults by combining data on annual diet, as measured by a food frequency questionnaire, with contaminant residue data for table-ready foods that were collected as part of the annual U.S. Food and Drug Administration Total Diet Study. The contaminants included in the analysis were four heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury), three organophosphate pesticides (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, malathion), and four organochlorine pesticides (dieldrin, p,p-DDE, lindane, heptachlor epoxide). Dietary exposures to these contaminants were highly variable among individuals, spanning two to three orders of magnitude. Intraindividual exposures to the metals, organophosphates, and organochlorines were estimated to be strongly correlated; Pearson's correlation coefficients ranged from 0.28 for lindane:dieldrin to 0.84 for lead:mercury. For some of the compounds (e.g., arsenic and dieldrin), a substantial fraction of the population was estimated to have dietary intakes in excess of health-based standards established by the EPA. Before use for risk assessment or epidemiologic purposes, however, the validity of the exposure estimates must be evaluated by comparison with biological indicators of chronic exposure. Because of their low detection rate in table-ready foods, the estimated distributions of exposures for dieldrin, p,p-DDE, heptachlor epoxide, lindane, diazinon, and chlorpyrifos were found to be sensitive to assumed values for nondetect samples. Reliable estimates of the population distribution of dietary exposures to most other contaminants cannot be made currently, due to their low rate of detection in table-ready foods. Monitoring programs that use more sensitive study designs and population-based assessments for other subpopulations should be a priority for future research.  [Abstract online.]

Drinking water without arsenic : a review of treatment technologies (Books/Monographs). Subramanian, K.S.; Swaninathan, T.V.; Viraraghavan, T.; ENSIC -Bangkok, TH. - Bangkok, Thailand, Environmental Systems Information Center, 1996. - 35 p.: 14 tab.. - (Environmental systems reviews; no. 37, 1994) 77 ref. Abstract: Arsenic, a known carcinogen, finds its way into the water supply systems due to industrial discharges, geothermal activities and agricultural runoffs. The carcinogenic property of arsenic has forced environmental regulatory agencies around the world to review their maximum acceptable concentration (MAC) in drinking water supplies, one of the main sources of human intake. With stricter regulations likely to be in place, it is necessary to review the treatment processes adopted for the removal of arsenic and identify a suitable treatment technique, which is efficient and economical, for reducing the concentration below the MAC. This paper presents a review of the treatment techniques being employed for the removal of arsenic from water supplies. These include: coagulation; lime softening; activated alumina (AA) systems; adsorption; ion exchange; reverse osmosis (RO); and filtration.

Health : Arsenic Poisoning - India (Journal Article) (Down to earth, vol. 4, no. 23, April 30, 1996, p. 11). Abstract: The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) has sought an updated and detailed report on arsenic poisoning in six districts - Nadia, Murshidabad, Malda, Burwan and the 24 Parganas (North and South). This came in response to a petition filed by a Delhi-based advocate and a British human rights activist who have asked the Commission to look into reported incidents of hundreds of thousands of people getting disabled or dying because they have to drink water from contaminated wells as no other source has been provided by the government.

Implications of arsenic genotoxicity for dose-response of carcinogenic effects. Rudel, R., T.M. Slayton, and B.D. Beck. Reg. Tox. Pharm. 23:87-105

Issues in arsenic cancer risk assessment. Slayton, T.M., B.D. Beck, K.A. Reynolds, S.D. Chapnick, P.A. Valberg, L.J. Jost, R.A. Schoof, T.D. Gauthier, and L. Jones. Environ. Health Perspec. 104(10):1012-1014.

Options to safeguard groundwater from arseniferous aquifers in West Bengal, India. P. Bhattacharya, D. Chatterjee, and G. Jacks. In: Reaching the Unreached-Challenges for the 21st Century, Proceedings of the 22nd WEDC Conference, New Delhi, India (eds J. Pickford, S. House, D. Miles, J. Ockelford, J. Parr, D. Saywell, R. Shaw, B. Skinner, I. Smout and R. Stear) pp. 258-261.

A surface structural approach to ion  adsorption: the charge distribution model. Hiemstra T and W.H.Van Riemsdijk. Journal of Colloid and Interface Sci. 179, 488-508 (1996). [CD-MUSIC model of surface complexation, helpful in understanding the  behaviour of As etc. binding to mineral surfaces.]

Toenail trace element levels and breast cancer: a prospective study. M Garland, JS Morris, GA Colditz, MJ Stampfer, VL Spate, CK Baskett, B Rosner, FE Speizer, WC Willett and DJ Hunter. Am J Epidemiol 144(7):653-660.   [Abstract]

Water technology : Arsenic Removal (Journal Article) - (Down to earth, vol. 5, no. 1, May 31, 1996, p. 7). Abstract: French researchers, led by Marc Leblanc from the French national research agency CNRS at the University of Montpellier, have discovered two strains of bacteria which convert the soluble form of arsenic into a less toxic precipitate. A stream flowing through the abandoned Carnoules lead and zinc mine in the Cevennes mountains in southern France was found to be the home of these bacteria. The researchers believe that the bacteria could belong to the Thiobacillus and Leptotrix strains. The discovery may have potential for use in the treatment of drinking water. (NB) Marc Leblanc, Geofluides-Bassins-Eau (CNRS-Montpellier 2), France, tel.: +33-467 1445 69, fax: +33-467 1447 74, E-mail: 



Arsenic contamination in groundwater within multilevel aquifer system of Indo-gangetic delta plains: A case study from West Bengal, eastern India. P. Bhattacharya, D. Chatterjee, and G. Jacks. 5th Seminar on Hydrogeology and Environmental Geochemistry, B. Bølviken Seminar-95; November 9-10, 1995, Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse, Report 95.138, 8-9.

Arsenic in ground water in six districts of West Bengal, India: the biggest arsenic calamity in the world. Part 1. Arsenic Species in drinking water and urine of the affected people. Amit Chatterjee, Dipankar Das, Badal K. Mandal, Tarit Roy Chowdhury, Gautam Samanta and Dipankar Chakraborti. The Analyst, Royal Society of Chemistry,UK,120,3,643-650,1995.

Arsenic in ground water in six districts of West Bengal, India: the biggest arsenic calamity in the world. Part 2. Arsenic concentration in drinking water, hair, nails, urine, skin-scale and liver tissue (biopsy) of the affected people. Dipankar Das, Amit Chatterjee, Badal Mandal, Gautam Samanta, Bhabatosh Chanda & Dipankar Chakraborti. The Analyst, Royal Society of Chemistry,UK,120,3,917-924,1995.

Arsenic removal by coagulation (Journal Article). Do, H.D.; Green, J.F.; McLean, S.J.; Scott, K.N.; Metropolitan Water District of Southern California -La Verne, CA, US In: Journal American Water Works Association; vol. 87, no. 4 (1995); p. 114-126: 5 fig., 10 tab.. - 24 ref.

Case-control study of bladder cancer and arsenic in drinking water. MN Bates, AH Smith and KP Cantor. Am J Epidemiol 141(6):523-530.  [Abstract]

Diabetes mellitus among Swedish art glass workers - an effect of arsenic exposure? Mahfazur Rahman, Gun Wingren and Olav Axelson. Scandinavian Journal of Work and Environmental Health, 22 146-149, 1995.

Diabetes mellitus and arsenic exposure: a second look at case-control data from a Swedish copper smelter. Mahfazur Rahman and Olav Axelson. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 52 773-774, 1995.

Ingested arsenic and internal cancer: a historical cohort study followed for 33 years. T Tsuda, A Babazono, E Yamamoto, N Kurumatani, Y Mino, T Ogawa, Y Kishi and H Aoyama. Am J Epidemiol 141(3):198-209.  [Abstract

Multiple risk factors associated with arsenic-induced skin cancer: effects of chronic liver disease and malnutritional status. Hsueh YM, Cheng GS, Wu MM, Yu HS, Kuo TL, Chen CJ. Br J Cancer 1995 Jan;71(1):109-14.  Abstract: In order to evaluate the prevalence and multiple risk factors of arsenic-induced skin cancer among residents in Taiwanese villages in which chronic arseniasis is hyperendemic, a total of 1571 subjects aged 30 or more years were recruited between September 1988 and March 1989. All of them were interviewed personally by a public health nurse using a structured questionnaire, and 1081 interviewed study subjects, including 468 men and 613 women, participated in physical examination, giving a participation rate of 68.8%. The overall prevalence of skin cancer was as high as 6.1%, showing an increase with age in both men and women. There was a significant dose-response relation between skin cancer prevalence and chronic arsenic exposure as indexed by duration of residence in the endemic area, duration of consumption of high-arsenic artesian well water, average arsenic exposure in parts per million (p.p.m.) and cumulative arsenic exposure in p.p.m.-years. Chronic carriers of hepatitis B surface antigen with liver dysfunction had an increased prevalence of skin cancer. Undernourishment, indexed by a high consumption of dried sweet potato as a staple food, was also significantly associated with an increased prevalence of arsenic-induced skin cancer. All these risk factors remained statistically significant in the multiple logistic regression analysis. Consistent with animal experiments, the findings imply that liver function and nutritional status may affect the metabolism of inorganic arsenic and the development of subsequent skin cancers.  [Abstract online.]

Plant uptake and determination of arsenic species in soil solution under flooded conditions. Onken, B. M., and Hossner, L. R. Journal of Environmental Quality, 24: 373 - 381.

Soluble arsenic removal at water treatment plants (Journal Article). Edwards, M.; McNeil, L.S.; University of Colorado -Boulder, CO, US In: Journal American Water Works Association; vol. 87, no. 5 (1995); p. 105-113: 6 fig., 4 tab.. - 9 ref.

Source of the Arsenious Sediments at Kachua and Itina, Habra Block, North 24 Parganas, West Bengal - A Case Study. Subhasis Ghosh and Sahadeb De. Indian Journal of Earth Sciences, 22 (4): 183-189, 1995.


Arsenic contamination in six districts of West Bengal, India: the biggest arsenic calamity in the world. Dipankar Das, Amit Chatterjee, Gautam Samanta, B K Mandal, T R Chowdhury, Gopal Samanta, P P Chowdhury, C R Chanda, Gautam Basu, Dilip Lodh, Swarup Nandi, Tushar Chakroborty, Swapan Mandal, Sanjit Mohan Bhattacharya and D Chakraborti. Analyst, 119 (Dec.): 168-170, 1994.

Arsenic in ground water in six districts of West Bengal: The biggest arsenic calamity in the world. D.Das, Amit Chatterjee, G.Samanta, D.Chakraborti, et. al., The Analyst, Royal Society of Chemistry, UK, 119 (12) Dec. 1994, N-168-N-170.

Arsenic in the Environment, Part I: Cycling and Characterization. Ed. J.O. Nriagu. Wiley, New York, 1994.  [Ordering.]

Arsenic in the Environment, Part II: Human Health and Ecosystem Effects. Ed. J.O. Nriagu. Wiley, New York, 1994.  [Description & ordering.]

Chemistry of arsenic removal during coagulation and Fe-Mn oxidation. M Edwards. Journal of American Water Works Association, 86 (9): 64-78, 1994.

Enhanced coagulation for arsenic removal (Journal Article). Beuhler, M.D.; Cheng, R.C.; Sun Liang; Wang, H.-C.; Metropolitan Water District of Southern California -La Verne, CA, US In: Journal American Water Works Association; vol. 86, no. 9 (1994); p. 79-90: 8 fig., 11 tab.. - 23 ref.

Health implications of arsenic in drinking water (Journal Article). Brown, K.G.; Chien-Jen Chen; Pontius, F.W.; AWWA -Denver, CO, US In: Journal American Water Works Association; vol. 86, no. 9 (1994); p. 52-63: 3 fig., 5 tab.. - 85 ref.

The hydrogeochemistry of alluvial aquifers in central Bangladesh, J. Davies.  In: Groundwater Quality; H.Nash and GJH McCall (eds). Chapman Hall.

Ingested inorganic arsenic and prevalence of diabetes mellitus. MS Lai, YM Hsueh, CJ Chen, MP Shyu, SY Chen, TL Kuo, MM Wu and TY Tai. Am J Epidemiol 139(5):484-492. [Abstract]

Metal-induced developmental toxicity in mammals: a review. Domingo JL. J Toxicol Environ Health 1994 Jun;42(2):123-41. [Abstract] 

Studies on the concentrations of arsenic, selenium, copper, zinc, and iron in the hair of blackfoot disease patients in different clinical stages. Wang C.T., Chang W.T., et. al.  Eur. J. Clin. Chem. Clin. Biochem. ,32:107-11.



Arsenic and its compounds (Books/Monographs); Canada. Environment Canada -CA; Canada. Health and Welfare Canada (CA. - Ottawa, Ont, Canada, Ministry of Supply and Services Canada, 1993. - vii, 56 p.: 4 fig., 4 tab. - (Priority substances list assessment report) ISBN 0662204883 Bibliography: p. 36-56.

Removal of arsenic(III) from contaminated ground waters by Ganga sand. R C Vaishya and I C Agarwal. Journal of Indian Water Works Association, 25 (3): 249-253, 1993.

Selenium in Nutrition. Revised edition.  [Whole book online]

A Study of Ground Water Contamination by Arsenic in the Residential Area of Behala, Calcutta due to Industrial Pollution. Amit Chatterjee, Dipankar Das & D.Chakraborti; Environmental Pollution, 80 (1), 57-65, 1993.


Arsenic ingestion and internal cancers: a review. MN Bates, AH Smith and C Hopenhayn-Rich. Am J Epidemiol 135(5): 462-476.  [Abstract]

Environmental biochemistry of arsenic. Tamaki, S., and Frankenberger, W. T. Rev. Environ. Contamination Toxicol. 124:79 - 110.

Environmental pollution and chronic arsenicosis in South Calcutta. D. N. Guha Mazumder, J. Das Gupta, A. K. Chakroborty, A. Chatterjee, D. Das and D. Chakroborty. Bulletin of the World Health Organizatoin, 70 (4): 481-485, 1992.

Hydrochemical character of the main aquifer units of central and north-eastern Bangladesh and possible toxicity of groundwater to fish and humans, J. Davies and C Exley. BGS Technical Report WD/92/43R.


Arsenic pollution in groundwater in West Bengal. PHED. In: Consultation on arsenic in drinking water and resulting arsenic toxicity in India and Bangladesh, WHO, New Delhi, 1991.

Estimating human exposure through multiple pathways from air, water, and soil. McKone TE, Daniels JI. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 1991 Feb;13(1):36-61.  Abstract: This paper describes a set of multipathway, multimedia models for estimating potential human exposure to environmental contaminants. The models link concentrations of an environmental contaminant in air, water, and soil to human exposure through inhalation, ingestion, and dermal-contact routes. The relationship between concentration of a contaminant in an environmental medium and human exposure is determined with pathway exposure factors (PEFs). A PEF is an algebraic expression that incorporates information on human physiology and lifestyle together with models of environmental partitioning and translates a concentration (i.e., mg/m3 in air, mg/liter in water, or mg/kg in soil) into a lifetime-equivalent chronic daily intake (CDI) in mg/kg-day. Human, animal, and environmental data used in calculating PEFs are presented and discussed. Generalized PEFs are derived for air- ---inhalation, air----ingestion, water----inhalation, water----ingestion, water----dermal uptake, soil----inhalation, soil----ingestion, and soil----dermal uptake pathways. To illustrate the application of the PEF expressions, we apply them to soil-based contamination of multiple environmental media by arsenic, tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and trinitrotoluene (TNT).  [Abstract online.]

Removal of arsenic from groundwater by lime softening with powdered coal additive. A Dutta and M Chaudhuri. Aqua, 41 (1): 25-29, 1991.  High levels of arsenic in tubewell drinking-water in West Bengal, India, have been linked to arsenical dermatosis and skin cancer. A laboratory lime softening test was carried out to remove arsenic from groundwater samples collected from one of the affected areas. At a lime dose of 1250 mg/l and pH 11.8, maximum removal was 90% whereby arsenic concentration was reduced from 0.68-0.70 mg/l (arsenic (III) 0.59-0.60 mg/l) to 0.07 mg/l. With powdered bituminous coal additive (2 g/l), residual arsenic level below the WHO guideline level of 0.05 mg/l was achieved at a lime dose of 800 mg/l and pH 11.5. The magnesium-hydroxide precipitate played a more significant role in removing arsenic, particularly arsenic (III) than calcium carbonate.


Removal of arsenic (III) from groundwater by low-cost materials (Journal Article). Chaudhuri, M.; Ghua, S.; Indian Institute of Technology -Kanpur, IN In: Asian environment; vol. 12, no. 1 (1990); p. 42-50: fig., tab.. - Includes references



Arsenic, selenium and zinc in patients with blackfoot disease. Lin SM, Yang MH.  Biol Trace Elem Res 15:213-222.

Arsenic in groundwater under oxidizing conditions, south-west United States. Frederick N. Robertson. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 11 171-185, 1989.

Dose-response relation between arsenic concentration in well water and mortality from cancers and vascular diseases. MM Wu, TL Kuo, YH Hwang and CJ Chen. Am J Epidemiol, 130(6):1123-1132, 1989. [Abstract]


Arsenic in ground water of the western United States. Alan H. Welch, Michael S. Lico and Jennifer L. Hughes. Ground Water, 26 (3): 333-347, 1988.

The biochemistry of arsenic. Knowles, F.C. and Benson, A.A. Trends Biochem. Sci. 8, 178-180

Chronic arsenic toxicity from drinking tubewell water in rural West Bengal. D.N. Guha Mazumder, A. K. Chakroborty, A. Ghose, J. Das Gupta, D. Chakroborti, S. B. Dey and N. Chattopadhaya. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 64 (4): 499-506, 1988.

Special report on ingested inorganic arsenic - skin cancer, nutritional essentiality. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. USEPA, EPA-625/3-87-013. Washington, D.C., 1988.


Lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic in the environment. Ed. T.C. Hutchinson and K.M. Meena. Wiley, New York, 1987


Arsenical dermatosis from tube well water in West Bengal. A K Chakraborty and K C Saha.  Indian Journal of Medical Research 1987, accepted August 1986.



Chronic arsenic poisoning from tubewell water. Goriar, R, Chakraborty, K., Pyne, R., 1984.  J. Indian Med. Assoc., 82, pp. 34-35.

Arsenic: industrial, biomedical, environmental perspectives. Ed. W.H. Lederer and R.J. Fensterheim. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1984


Biological and environmental effects of arsenic. Ed. B.A. Fowler. Elesevier, Amsterdam, 1983

Chronic arsenic poisoning in the north of Mexico. M E Cebrian, A Albores, M Aquilar and E Blakely. Human Toxicology, 2 121-133, 1983.



Environmental Health Criteria 18: Arsenic. WHO. World Health Organization, Geneva, 1981.  [Full text available online.]  


Ground-water geochemistry: arsenic in landfills. A W Hounslow. Ground Water, 18 (4): 331-333, 1980.



Synergistic toxicity between arsenic and methylated selenium compounds. Kraus RJ, Ganther H.  Biol Trace Elem Res 20:105-113. Schrauzer GN, 1979: Trace elements in carcinogenesis. Advances in Nutritional Research, ed. HH Draper. C:219-244. Summary: Overview on essentiality, mutagenicity, antimutagenicity, carcinogenicity etc., of selenium, arsenic, iodine, zinc, cadmium, lead, nickel, chromium, copper, manganese.



Arsenic: Medical and Biological Effects of Environmental Pollutants (1977). Commission on Life Sciences. National Academy Press. [Whole book online]

Effects and dose-response relationships of skin cancer and blackfoot disease with arsenic. W.P. Tseng. Environmental Health Perspectives, 19 109-119, 1977.


Arsenic stability in contaminated soils. R.E. Hess and R.W. Blanchar. Soil Soc. Am. J., 40 847-852, 1976.



Biological cycles for toxic elements in the environment. J. M. Wood. Science, 183 (March): 1049-1052, 1974.

Before 1970

Prevalance of skin cancer in an endemic area of chronic arsenicism in Taiwan. W P Tseng, H M Chu, S W How, J M Fong, C S Lin and S Yeh. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 40 (3): 453-463, 1968.

Geochemistry of arsenic. Y. Onishi and E.B. Sandell. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 7, 1-33, 1955.

Selenium metabolism, V: studies on the distribution of Se in rats given arsenic. Levander OA, Bauman CA.  Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 9:98-105.  Summary: Interaction of retentions of Selenium and Arsenic in subacute dosages - presence of one of them makes the body excrete the other more efficiently.


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