Research & Researchers
...involved in the Bengal arsenic crisis or related work. If your
organization and/or project should be added here, please email your info to email@example.com.
See also Organizations & Projects.
Comment as of Dec 2000: We hope to replace this webpage and the
organizations/projects page, with pages that are dynamically generated from a
database directory of individual researchers, organizations, research
projects, implementation projects, donors, and other arsenic crisis
American Water Works Association Research Foundation [AWWARF] Projects Related
to Arsenic Issues. "More than 20 projects
valued at $7.4 million have been funded through the Arsenic Research
Partnership, a collaboration between the US Environmental Protection Agency, the
Association of California Water Agencies, and the AWWA Research Foundation. This
research addresses techniques to improve the detection and removal of arsenic
from drinking waters, understand the health impacts of arsenic, and determine
the cost implications of a lower arsenic regulation for water utilities."
AWWARF projects related to
arsenic issues include:
Analytical Chemistry of Arsenic in Drinking Water, Montgomery
Watson, published 1998.
Arsenic Contribution from Dietary Sources, Research Triangle
Institute, to be completed 2001.
Arsenic Effect On Gene Expression - A, University of Alberta,
to be completed 2002.
Arsenic Effect On Gene Expression - B, University of Michigan,
to be completed in 2002.
Arsenic Removal by Enhanced Coagulation and Membrane Processes,
University of California at Los Angeles, published 1996.
Arsenic Treatability Options and Residuals Evaluation, University
of Colorado and University of Washington, to be completed 1999.
Arsenic Research Partnership [no longer online]. ARP is "a collaboration of the
American Water Works Association Research Foundation [AWWARF], the Association
of California Water Agencies, and the US Environmental Protection
Agency." ARP 2000 projects:
- Point of Use/Point of Entry Implementation Feasibility
Study for Arsenic Treatment [#2730] Will determine the feasibility of
implementing or centrally-managing a point-of-use (POU) or point-of-entry
(POE) device option for removing arsenic that meets the requirements of the
1996 SDWA Amendments and the proposed revised arsenic maximum contaminant
level (MCL) for a small community system. $250,000.
- Impact of Water Quality Parameters on Adsorbent Treatment
Technologies for Arsenic Removal [#2731] Will determine the impairing and
synergistic effects of source water quality parameters on the treatment and
regeneration efficiency of newer adsorption technologies applicable for
arsenic removal. $250,000.
- Validation of Arsenic Analytical Method [#2732] Will obtain
validation data on arsenic speciation method using atomic fluorescence
spectrometry (AFS) that would enable the method to be considered and
potentially incorporated into the next edition of Standard Methods for the
Examination of Water and Wastewater. $60,000.
- New Technologies for Arsenite Oxidation [#2734] Will
investigate emerging methods to oxidize As(III) to As(V) for arsenic removal
such as solid media or UV/photo-oxidation. Will also determine whether the
addition of chemicals such as iron or sulfur enhances these processes.
- Process Performance Indicators for Arsenic Removal [#2735
& #2736] Will develop or identify process performance indicators for
arsenic removal. Will consider field measurements that directly measure
arsenic or water quality parameters that indirectly measure arsenic removal.
- U.S.-Based Arsenic Mortality Study [#2737] Will determine
the correlation of arsenic in drinking water with human mortality in at
least three U.S. states. $400,000.
- Correlation of Arsenic Levels in Drinking Water with Cancer
Incidence [#2738] Will compare and correlate arsenic levels in drinking
water with cancer incidence in populations, using cancer registries in the
United States. Will develop data to help refine the dose-response
relationship between arsenic exposure from drinking water and cancer of the
skin, bladder, and lung, and other cancers. $300,000.
- Feasibility of Arsenic-Induced Dermatological Changes Study
[#2739] Will determine the feasibility of a study to determine if
populations exposed to arsenic in drinking water in the United States
experience dermatological changes. $100,000.
- Workshop on Arsenic Health Effects Research Status and
Needs [#2740] Will summarize the status of arsenic health effects research
and determine the research needed to reduce the uncertainties in risk
assessments of arsenic in drinking water. $51,900.
- A project to develop recommendations for designing and
implementing a strategy using an integrated approach for utility compliance
with multiple groundwater rules was added directly to ongoing AwwaRF project
#2698 "Water Resource Management Strategies for Compliance with
Multiple Regulatory Requirements". This project add-on was funded at a
level of $40,000.
ARP 1999 projects:
Disposal of Waste Resulting from Arsenic Removal Processes (RFP2659) -
Issues and Costs Associated With Treatment Process Integration for Arsenic
Removal (RFP 2660) - $225,000
Demonstration of Emerging Technologies for Arsenic Removal (RFP 2661) -
Preservation of Arsenic Species (RFP 2662) - $75,000
Field Separation Method for Arsenic Inorganic Species (RFP 2663) - $100,000
Influence of Source Water Quality on Arsenic Treatment Decisions (RFP 2664)
Design and Maintenance for Arsenic Removal Technologies (RFP 2665) - $250,000.
AwwaRF research programs
in Tubewell Water and Health Consequences. This ICDDR,B-led
project beginning 1 Jun 2001 will focus on epidemiological research and
mitigation in ICDDR,B's Matlab research area in Chandpur district. Other
project partners include Linkoping University and Karolinska Institute in Sweden
and BRAC in Bangladesh.
of Projects on Arsenic at Harvard and MIT: Harvard University School of Public
Health, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, John F. Kennedy School of Governement,
Harvard Institute for International Development, and Parsons Laboratory at MIT.
See also the Harvard
Public Health Review article [undated] about the Arsenic Project at the
Janet G. Hering. Environmental chemistry of trace metals in natural and
engineered aquatic systems, kinetics of complexation, sorption, and dissolution
reactions. Co-author with Elimelech of the book
Arsenic Removal by Enhanced Coagulation & Membrane Processes 1996.
Columbia University. Arsenic related resources on the CU server:
Toronto Canada (formerly or affiliated with Dainichi, Tokyo Japan). This site includes links to "news articles,
technical papers, and [Dainichi's] research outputs" related to the arsenic
Researchers Join Forces To Address Arsenic Crisis In Bangladesh, by Kurt
Sternlof, 17 Apr 2000.
and Cancer [report on research by oncologist Tom K. Hei]. In: J. Coll.
Physicians Surgeons Columbia Univ. V19 N2 Spring 1999.
Work of UNICEF, Programming for Arsenic Mitigation in Bangladesh, by
Greg Keast and Jingjing Qian. In: The Columbia Earth Institute -
EARTHmatters, Science & Environmental Negotiations, Fall
by Paul Brand-Rauf, Joe Graziano and Martin Stute. In: The Columbia Earth
Institute - EARTHmatters, Science & Environmental Negotiations, Fall
1999. [Report of their visit to Bangladesh and research plans.]
Geohazard Research Group (GRG) at the Department of Geology,
Dhaka University "Actively engaged in the research for determining
the source, release and mobilizing character of arsenic in groundwater
in this vast deltaic region and to suggest mitigational approach." Email
contact Dr. Aftab Alam Khan.
Medical Institute: "Arsenic
and old waste: Predoctoral fellow finds an organism with a taste for poison,"
May 1995. "Predoctoral fellow Dianne Ahmann, a graduate student
at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, discovered an arsenic-eating
microbe in the waters of the Aberjona Watershed near Boston."
India-Germany Arsenic Research Collaboration at IIT Bombay - Univ
Karlsruhe. The Department of Earth Earth Sciences, IIT
Bombay and the Institute of Minerology and Geochemistry, University of Karlsruhe,
Germany under DAAD-IITB exchange programme, is conducting research related to arsenic pollution in
groundwater of West Bengal.
Update, mid 2002: "At present we are concentrating
on the uptake of arsenic by rice and wheat in West Bengal. This is a part of
research project being carried out by Ms Paramita Agrawala under the supervision
of Prof. Chandrasekharam from IIT-B and Prof Stueben and Dr Berner, Germany. The
project will be completed by the end of March 2003. - Prof.D.Chandrasekharam,
Senior Associate, International Ctr.Theoretcal Phy,Italy and Head, Department of
Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay 400076,India. Email firstname.lastname@example.org
or email@example.com "
Investigators include, from the Indian side, Prof. D
Chandrasekharam and M.Tech. graduate student Ms. Julie Karmar, and from the
German side, Prof. Doris Stueben, Head, Department of Petrography and
Geochemistry, University of Karlsruhe, and Dr Zsolt Berner, Senior Research
Scientist, Department of Petrography and Geochemistry, University of Karlsruhe.
Ms. Kurmar's thesis work, to be completed in Feb 2002, covered
parts of Murshidabad district in 1998. Her results are being presented at the
forthcoming Water-Rock Conference 10 in
Italy during May 2001.
This work continues with watersheds in parts of Bihar and West
Bengal selected for this year. For more info, contact
Prof.D.Chandrasekharam, Head, Dept. Earth Sciences, TWAS Visiting Professor,
Sana'a Univ.,Yemen Republic, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay 400076,India,
Ph: 91-22-572 6568; 91-22-5768263; 91-22-5767263, Fax: 91-22-5723480;
91-22-5767253, email firstname.lastname@example.org.
Group. "The London Arsenic Group brings together
expertise from the fields of sedimentary geochemistry, hydrochemistry,
environmental mineralogy and analytical geochemistry. We seek to
understand the source, mobility, and fate, of arsenic in the environment. We
exist to bring a multi-disciplinary approach to this issue and provide a focus
for exchange of views." Includes researchers & facilities from
University College London and Birkbeck College of London." Group
members include Charlie Bristow, Lecturer in Sedimentology, University
College London; Richard Howarth, Visiting Professor of Mathematical Geology, UCL;
Karen Hudson-Edwards, Lecturer, Birkbeck College; John McArthur, Professor of
Geochemistry, UCL; and Spiros Pergantis, Lecturer, Birkbeck College.
NYU Center of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences:
list of researchers with interests in environmental health aspects of arsenic.
Arsenic Research Group (GARG) Coordinator, Prosun
Bhattacharya, Ph.D. (Research
Scientist, Sediment geochemistry). Other GARG arsenic researchers: Jon-Petter
Gustafsson, Bo Olofsson, Jaana Aaltonen, Andre Sracek, Debashis Chatterjee, Kazi
Matin Ahmed, Aftab Alam Khan.
Steven Institute of Technology - search of their website for
"Bangladesh" + "arsenic" finds various press releases etc., but
as of 30 May 01 no home page for
their work in Bangladesh.
School of Environment Studies, Jadavpur
University. SOES is the leading organization in addressing the crisis
in West Bengal. The JU website
has general information about the university. See Arsenic
Report, School of Environmental Studies [Jadavpur University, Calcutta],
Texas Tech Univ - Professor of Nutrition and Biochemistry Julian
Spallholz, Ph.D: "I believe that that arsenicosis might be
alleviated by \dietary supplements of selenium as has been recently been
reported to help arsenicosis in patients in Mongolia [see note 1] and that
selenium accelerates the excretion of As [see note 2]. Our work to date shows
that a dietary deficiency of normal selenium levels in rats enhances the arsenic
toxicity from water. Soil samples obtained from Bangladesh to date show levels
of selenium comparable to levels found in the Keshan disease areas of China. The
question remaining to be answered by human data is, is arsenicosis in Bangladesh
really a dietary problem, in particular a dietary selenium
deficiency?" Note 1. Prevention of Endemic Arsenism with Selenium,
Current Science 81,1215, 2001. 2. Biliary Excretion of As/Se after IV
Injection of Rabbits, Chem Res Toxicol 15, 1455, 2002.
States Geological Survey (USGS)
of California, Berkeley, Arsenic Health Effects
Research Program, School of Public Health and Center
for Occupational and Environmental Health.
"Research activities began nearly ten years ago with a risk assessment
for arsenic in drinking water. The realization that potential risks were
high led to a program of arsenic research, including epidemiologic studies
of various designs which are being undertaken among exposed populations
in several countries." The Arsenic Health Effects Research Program website can be downloaded in its
entirety. USEPA funded project of UC Berkeley,
principal investigator Allan H. Smith: A
dose-response and susceptibility investigation of skin keratoses and hyperpigmentation
due to ingestion of arsenic in drinking water. ,
project period Sep 1997 - Sep 2000. "The proposed study will be conducted
in West Bengal, India where a large population is exposed to drinking water
containing arsenic. This study will focus on effects at low doses and will
be of immediate value for arsenic risk assessment. The key objectives
of the proposed research are to establish the dose-response relationship
for skin keratoses and hyperpigmentation caused by ingestion of inorganic
arsenic in drinking water, and to identify if susceptibility varies according
to arsenic methylation efficiency and nutritional factors. The study
will build upon a unique cross-sectional epidemiological study previously
conducted in the arsenic exposed region of West Bengal, India."
University of Turku,
Arsenic Detection & Measurement Biosensor Project. "Bioluminescent sensors are developed by means of incorporating
engineered luciferase genes from firefly, Photinus pyralis or bacteria Photorhabdus luminescens into various microbial strains. These light-emitting sensors are applied for 'environmental diagnostic' and/or
analysis of food quality. Several nonspecific microbial whole cell sensors which react to nearly
any kind of toxic substances have been developed. A more novel approach is to construct an artificial operon in which a strictly regulated
promoter is connected to a reporter gene. For instance for environmental applications the most interesting promoters can be found in bacteria
which survive in extreme environments contaminated by for example, heavy metals or organic compounds. Luminescent sensor bacteria using this
regulation element-reporter gene concept each highly specific for their target ion have been developed in our laboratory for the detection of
mercury, lead, cadmium and arsenic ions. Regulation units which respond to different antibiotics can be utilised in generating sensitive methods
for food drug residue screening purposes, or for high throughput screening (HTS) projects in pharmaceutical industry as well."